Zero World War
And the truth is, not immediately and think about the fact that there was World War I and World War II. This is the entire history of civilization? What is World War? World wars are wars that have affected most of the states of the world, including all major states and spanned several continents.
And now scientists from Switzerland declared that in ancient times a real battle of civilizations took place. A group of scientists led by Eberhard Zanger put forward the hypothesis that the First and Second World Wars were preceded by another one - Zero.
The Trojan War entered the history of world culture as a truly epic event, after all, in the poem Iliad it was described by the blind ancient Greek singer Homer. Today, after millennia after the alleged Trojan War, a group of Swiss historians presented the theory that the famous battle between Achaeans and Trojans could be one of the decisive ones in the “zero world war”. According to Eberhard Zanger, the head of the international non-profit organization of the Louvian Studies, which is located in Zurich, the battle destroyed an entire Mediterranean civilization of 3.2 thousand.years ago.
According to scientists, the Trojan War was not started by the ancient gods and not a beautiful woman (this is how Homer represents the beginning of the military events in the Iliad), but the Luvians are the Hittite-related people who lived on the west and south-west coast of Asia Minor. According to the Swiss geoarchaeologist Eberhard Zanger, he managed to find the missing detail of the mosaic, thanks to which you can recreate a panoramic historical canvas. He repeatedly tried to prove the truth of the events of the Trojan War, about which he wrote in his scientific works. According to Zanger, the beginning of the battle between the Greeks and Trojans was preceded by the fall of the mysterious Luvian civilization.
Originating in the middle of the 3rd millennium BC, already by the 2nd millennium BC The Livonian people established their influence throughout the entire eastern part of the Mediterranean. The territory where the Luvians lived was particularly rich in minerals and metal ores, which probably allowed them to strengthen their power in ancient times. After studying a large number of images taken by satellites, Zanger concluded that this region of Asia Minor was densely populated during the late Bronze Age.He found about 340 large urban settlements, of which only a few have been excavated to the present. “Some of these cities are so large that they can be seen from space,” says the scientist.
In the ancient Hittite texts there are references to several small kingdoms in western Anatolia, speaking different versions of the general Luvian language. Small states united into an alliance, after which, according to Zanger, the Luvian civilization began to take shape. At first, the Luvians lived quite amicably with their neighbors: the ancient Egyptians, the inhabitants of the New Kingdom, the Hittites from central Anatolia, and the Mykene who settled on mainland Greece. However, peaceful coexistence soon bored the Luvians. Judging by the preserved records, the people themselves considered themselves so powerful that once they decided to go to war against the Hittite empire.
It should be recognized that the self-respect of the Luvians was not without foundation: soon after the first attacks, the Hittites fell under the pressure of the Luvian army.
Ancient Egyptian scribes, who also testified to the collapse of the Hittite empire, repeatedly mention the "peoples of the sea", which, according to Zanger, were Luvians.Having conquered the Hittites and tasted the taste of power and wealth, the Luvians chose a new victim and continued their military campaigns now against the Egyptian New Kingdom.
The Luvian army won one victory after another, but this did not help it to save its own state from collapse: in just a few decades, civilization fell into decay. For a long time, historians and archaeologists were puzzled, trying to find the causes of the disappearance of a powerful civilization. Scientists blamed the changing climate, natural disasters and social instability. According to Zanger, the cause should be sought among the Mykene. Having heard about the plight of the Egyptians, the people of Greece seemed to have a premonition that the next blow by the Luvians would be on them, and quickly came together in their own coalition. Following the rule “the best defense is attack”, the Mykene crossed the Aegean Sea and attacked the mighty Luvians themselves. Having crushed restless neighbors, the Mykene undermined their own state: realizing that nothing threatened them any more, the people started a quarrel between themselves and started a civil war. Subsequently, among the destroyed cities was the famous Troy.
Eberhard Zanger argues that only such a sequence of events is consistent with the records of the surviving ancient texts from the entire eastern part of the Mediterranean.
Truth is born in controversy
To a seemingly well-balanced theory, Zanger’s colleagues reacted more than skeptically. “In order for Zangger’s statement about a truly powerful civilization to become undeniable, archaeologists must discover examples of monumental art and architecture throughout western Anatolia, as well as texts from the same places,” said Oxford University teacher, orientalist Christoph Bachhuber. The scientist considers Zanger's theory simply a “pathetic tale.” Bakhhuber also recalled that historians should question the ancient epics, among them the essay of Homer. According to scientists, they are unlikely to contain at least a small fraction of historical truth.
At a lunge, colleagues from Oxford Zanger cited the example of several other ancient texts about the Trojan War, which coincide with the story told by Homer.
However, one of them, created in the first century of our era, belongs to the now lost Egyptian monuments and remains only a reference in other sources.
Our compatriot, linguist Ilya Yakubovich, who now teaches at the Philip University in Marburg, entered into controversy. The texts that have reached us relate mainly to the late Bronze Age and create a slightly confusing picture that can be interpreted both in support and in refutation of Zanger's theory, he said.
Objections of Zangeru from other scientists are quite reasonable. First, it is not completely clear whether the Trojan War, the fall of the Hittite power, the end of the Mycenaean civilization is the cause or consequence of the invasion of the "peoples of the sea". Secondly, the “peoples of the sea” includes not one tribe, but many tribes: Sherdans, Thyrsens, Tersha, Philistines and Chakkal, Danuns, Phrygian, Shakalesha, Akayvasha (Achaeans), Garamants, Bows, Tevry.
Despite criticism and controversial judgments, it should be recognized that Zanger's theory contributed to the growth of interest in the late Bronze Age. Mass archaeological research in the long-abandoned western Anatolia will only benefit science. Even Bakhkhuber admitted this: “In fact, I am very glad that he managed to draw attention to this region,” the scientist said.
However, this is just a hypothesis that needs additional evidence.