Who built the Gobekli Tepe complex?
Gobekli Tepe- The most ancient temple on earth. According to scientists, it was built by nomads 12,000 years ago, and only later settlements of sedentary tribes appeared near it. But is it? The ancient megalith conceals a lot of mysteries, not solved yet.
“This place is a supernova”
This rounded hill 15 meters high, located in southeastern Turkey, eight kilometers northeast of the city of лыanlıurfa, was nothing remarkable.
True, the peasants from the nearby village of Orendzhik, plowing open its slopes for sowing wheat, sometimes ran across some kind of stone blocks, but viewed them as an annoying hindrance, dragging them away and dumping them into heaps outside the field. .
In the 1960s, American archaeologists led by Peter Benedict appeared on Puzatom Hill (as translated from Turkish Gobekli Tepe). They found some ancient artifacts (flint knives, scrapers, etc.).
Based on the fact that a Muslim cemetery is located nearby, Benedict suggested that this area serves as the last refuge for the dead for a long time and it is quite possible that the hill hides more ancient Byzantine burial grounds. However, local authorities have banned archaeologists to continue excavation.
In 1994, Klaus Schmidt, a professor at the German Archaeological Institute, climbed Puzaty Hill. Flint stones, piled up on top of a hill, attracted his attention. Most likely, the peasants dragged them from their arable lands there, but the professor suggested that these were billets for the production of stone tools in a large workshop located here that met the needs of not only the local population.
In these piles there were also finished products. Schmidt was somewhat embarrassed by the fact that the workshop was located on the top of a hill — it was inconvenient to carry up raw materials and lower finished products. But there was some special attractive force in Gobekli Tepe.
“This place is a supernova,” said Schmidt in an interview. “Already in the first minute after its discovery, I knew that I had two ways: either to leave here without saying a word to anyone, or to spend the rest of my life here on these excavations.
Enlisting the support of the director of the museum Sanliurfa, the professor received permission to dig. He bought a house in this city, making it a base for archaeological research, and hired a brigade of local residents. Since then, Schmidt has spent two spring and two autumn months every year on Gobekli-Tepa.
Reliefs of faceless gods
Already at the very beginning of the excavation, several T-shaped limestone columns covered with images of animals were opened to the gaze of archaeologists. Studies have determined that they were built about 12 thousand years ago, that is, in the Mesolithic era. Thus, Gobekli Tepe is the oldest megalithic structure known on Earth. He is older than Stonehenge and the first cities of Mesopotamia.
Further excavations made it possible to determine the configuration of this archaeological complex. With the help of workers from local Kurds, four round rooms with a diameter of 15–20 meters were cleared.
They consisted of monolithic columns with a height of three to five meters, connected by walls of raw stone. The same columns are installed in the center of these rooms. The floors are made of burnt limestone with low stone benches along the walls.
So supposedly in antiquity built this complex
The artful carving decorating columns is unique. They depict foxes, wild boars, cranes, lions, kites, snakes, spiders ... There are also images of creatures similar to humans, only faceless.
“I think that here we are confronted with the earliest images of gods,” said Klaus Schmidt. - They have no eyes, no mouths, no faces. But they have hands and they have palms. These are creators.
Most of the images are made in the form of reliefs, but there are also three-dimensional sculptures. Among them, the figure of a lion descending down the column is particularly notable for the level of artistic skill. On some stelae there are icons, icons, which have not yet been deciphered.
It was established that the stone for this structure was mined in the quarries located nearby. Here are found several unfinished columns, whose height reached nine meters.
Unfortunately, it is impossible to say exactly how these structures looked as a whole, since their upper part was destroyed by weathering and by local residents breaking out stone blocks during tillage.
Currently, only 5% of the Gobekli Tepe area has been excavated. According to geophysical studies, in the bowels of the hill 16 more similar structures are hidden.
The legacy of a highly developed civilization
A natural question arises: who built this megalithic complex and what functions did it perform? After all, if the dating is correct, then it was created in the Stone Age. According to academic science, at that time, primitive people gathered wild fruits, hunted animals, made quite skilled tools of labor from flint, used fire.
They buried tribesmen, in the tombs there are jewelery - beads and pendants, which means that they had free time, not busy with searching and getting food. But at the same time, they still did not know how to make metal and ceramic products, build stone dwellings and protective walls, did not know agriculture. Even the wheel has not been invented yet.
How could the people of the Mesolithic, not having metal tools, be able to carve out these multi-ton columns from stone and decorate them with intricate carvings? In addition, only in order to deliver them from the quarry and to establish in a vertical position, in the absence of livestock, efforts of at least 500 people are required.
Such work required a systematic effort and the presence of a social hierarchy in which many people would be subordinated to one religious or military leader. For communities of collectors and hunters, such a high level of social organization is not at all typical.
It remains to assume that the Gobekli-Tepe complex was inherited by people of the Stone Age from a certain highly developed civilization. Perhaps they were aliens, or representatives of parallel worlds, or our distant descendants who moved to the past on a time machine to create a research base.
Perhaps it was a terrestrial highly developed civilization, lost as a result of a planetary cataclysm. Their descendants, who survived this disaster, but lost their knowledge and skills, having descended into the stone age, began to use the building as a temple - a place of worship of the gods, personified the forces of nature.
Here they were sacrificed animals and captured enemies. That is, Gobekli-Tepe, most likely, was used only for religious rituals, people have never lived here.
Over time, with the development of agriculture, the nomadic way of life was replaced by a sedentary, in this area there were villages and cities.But people still came to the ancient temple complex to pray and make sacrifices to their gods, but more and more often these gifts became grain.
But one day everything changed. Gobekli-Tepe facilities were partially destroyed, many relief images were hewn, and the whole complex was buried under a multimeter layer of earth. Who did it and why? This riddle has been haunting scientists for many years.
The researchers found that the temple complex was covered with earth at the beginning of the eighth millennium BC. Again, based on the official theory of evolution, primitive people did not have the opportunity to do such a tremendous job.
And why did they need it? After all, how many shrines and temples were abandoned in later epochs, and the wind of time destroyed them to the ground, leaving only piles of stones.
It can be assumed that the temple was bombarded by its true creators - then, in order to convey some important information to humanity, which has reached a level of development sufficient to adequately perceive it. Obviously, this information is contained in the mysterious pictograms. It is likely that someone will ever read the ancient messages of Gobekli Tepe.
But first you need to dig out the whole complex.Meanwhile, after the death of Klaus Schmidt in 2014, excavations were suspended. And even after their renewal, according to the calculations of specialists, in order to clear the whole Gobekli-Tepe, it will take half a century.