What reactions are called reversible What is chemical equilibrium how to displace it

what reactions are called reversible? What is chemical equilibrium? how to displace it?

what reactions are called reversible? What is chemical equilibrium? how to displace it?

  1. Reversible reactions are reactions in which for example one substance is produced, and you can make back the substance from which you started ... for example from sulfuric acid water and vice versa.

    Chemical equilibrium is the balance of substances in a solution or a melt.
    The chemical equilibrium can be displaced by means of the temperature, the concentration of the substance.
    BUT THIS IS SO YOUR WORDS !!!

  2. Reversible reactions. chemical reactions that occur simultaneously in two opposite directions (direct and reverse), for example:
    3H2 + N2 #8652; 2NH3.

    The direction of reversible reactions depends on the concentrations of the substances of the participants in the reaction. So in the resulted reaction, at a small concentration of ammonia in the gas mixture and high concentrations of nitrogen and hydrogen, ammonia is formed; on the contrary, at a high concentration of ammonia, it decomposes, the reaction proceeds in the opposite direction. After the end of the reversible reaction, i.e., when the chemical equilibrium is reached, the system contains both the starting materials and the reaction products.

    A simple (one-stage) reversible reaction consists of two simultaneous elementary reactions that differ from each other only in the direction of the chemical transformation. The direction of the final reaction available to direct observation is determined by which of these mutually-inverse reactions has a high speed. For example, a simple reaction
    N2O4 #8652; 2NO2

    consists of elementary reactions
    N2O4 #8652; 2NO2 and 2NO2 #8652; N2O4.

    For the reversibility of a complex (multistage) reaction, for example, the already mentioned ammonia synthesis reaction, it is necessary that all the constituent steps be reversible. .
    -
    Chemical equilibrium. the state of a chemical system in which one or more chemical reactions reversibly occur, and the velocities in each pair of direct-reverse reaction are equal to each other. For a system in chemical equilibrium, the concentration of reagents, the temperature and other parameters of the system do not change with time.

    A2 + B2 #8644; 2AB.
    -------------------------------------------------
    Displacement of chemical equilibrium.
    Main article: Principle of Le Chatelier Brown

    The position of the chemical equilibrium depends on the following reaction parameters: temperature, pressure and concentration. The influence that these factors exert on a chemical reaction is governed by the regularities that were expressed in general form in 1885 by the French scientist Le Chatelier.

    Factors affecting the chemical equilibrium:

    1) temperature

    As the temperature increases, the chemical equilibrium shifts toward the endothermic (absorption) reaction, and when it decreases toward the exothermic (evolution) reaction.

    CaCO3 = CaO + CO2 -Q t # 8593; #8594 ;, t # 8595; #8592;

    N2 + 3H2 # 8596; 2NH3 + Q t # 8593; #8592 ;, t # 8595; #8594;

    2) pressure

    As the pressure increases, the chemical equilibrium shifts toward a smaller volume of substances, and when it decreases toward a larger volume. This principle only applies to gases, that is, if solids participate in the reaction, they are not taken into account.

    CaCO3 = CaO + CO2 P # 8593; #8592 ;, P # 8595; #8594;

    1MOL = 1MOL + 1MOL

    3) concentration of starting materials and reaction products

    With an increase in the concentration of one of the initial substances, the chemical equilibrium shifts toward the reaction products, and with an increase in the concentration of the reaction products, toward the initial substances.

    S2+2O2=2SO2 ,O#8593; #8594;, SO2#8593; #8592;

    The catalysts do not affect the shift of the chemical equilibrium !.



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