What is hypovolemic shock?
Shock called a critical condition, in which the perfusion of organs is sharply reduced, that is all, especially the vital organs, are in a state of oxygen starvation.
Among the reasons for this condition are the following: traumatic lesion, burn, loss of blood, infectious damage, a sharp weakening of the function of the heart muscle, the ingestion of the allergen into the human body, which was previously sensitized.
Types of shock
Depending on the reasons for the development of this state, several types can be distinguished:
1. hypovolemic shock;
2. traumatic or painful;
This type of critical condition developsmost often. For this reason, it is worthwhile to dwell on its description in more detail. Hypovolemic shock develops as a result of an acute shortage of circulating blood. As a result, the venous inflow to the heart decreases and a secondary decrease in cardiac output occurs.
The immediate causes of this speciesAn emergency is a loss of blood (both external and internal); loss of fluid in infectious diseases. Reduction of blood volume can also occur as a result of accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity with peritonitis, traumatic damage of soft tissues.
Hypovolemic shock in infectiousdiseases develops in connection with the dehydration syndrome, more often with intestinal infections, namely food poisoning, salmonellosis, cholera and so on. However, this does not always happen. If treatment of intestinal infection is started in a timely manner, then such a critical condition will not develop.
For a better understanding of what a hypovolemic shock is, you need to consider the pathogenesis of its development. In its development, three phases can be distinguished:
1. lack of volume of circulating blood;
2. activation of the sympathetic-adrenal system;
3. Direct shock.
At the first stage the human body feels a deficitvolume of fluid in the bloodstream, which is manifested by a decrease in the venous influx to the heart, a decrease in central pressure. As a result of these processes, cardiac output is reduced. During the first hour, the interstitial fluid rushes into the capillaries, which means that the volume of the intercellular sector decreases.
In the second stage, there is stimulationThe baroreceptors are reflexively stimulating the sympathetic-adrenal system. As a result, secretion of catecholamines increases: norepinephrine increases tens of times, adrenaline - in hundreds.
In this case, the sympatheticthe tone of the veins, the heart and arterioles, which entails an increase in the ability of the myocardium to contract and increase heart rate. And then there is a centralization of blood circulation. In the third stage, which begins in the absence of treatment, prolonged hypovolemia results in a persistent decrease in perfusion.
Clinically hypovolemic shock is manifestedfrequent small pulse; low systolic blood pressure; decreased central venous pressure; cold, wet, pale cyanotic, even marbled skin; slow blood flow in the nail bed; oliguria.
With the appearance of the slightest signs of developmenthypovolemic shock, you should immediately contact a medical facility for help. Do not think that such a state can stop on its own. In order to save a person, it is best to call an ambulance team, which will begin to provide first aid at the transportation stage. In this state, even the slightest delay can cost a person's life.