Update and outflow of icons
The phenomenon of myrrh-streaming icons has long been known. It is a selection from the image of the icon of a certain light oily type of substance, which is not at all identical with the sacred world used in the sacrament of anointing. The released liquid only resembles Miro, and the same fragrance emanates from it.
Myrrh-movements of icons differ from each other in appearance, color and consistency of the resulting liquid. It can be thick, viscous, like tar, or resemble dew (in the latter case, myrrh infusion is sometimes called an eerology or diffusion).
There are cases of myrrh-flow not only the originals of the icons, but also their copies, lithographs, photographs of icons, frescoes, as well as metal icons. This phenomenon has always become a sign of some event in history.
The ubiquitous myrrh-streaming of icons in the history of Russia, as a rule, took place at a turning point.
“Myrrh flow is both a call to repentance and a manifestation of mercy, a sign that the high world is close to us.The fact is that the manifestation of a true miracle, the approaching to us of God's grace in man always causes a feeling of repentance, a feeling of unworthiness. Unlike false appearances, which can cause completely different feelings. And these phenomena in the Orthodox language are called charms. ”
This can be confirmed by the chronicle history associated with the icon of the Ustyug Annunciation, which is now in the Kremlin. The icon was in Veliky Ustyug. In the thirteenth century, in 1285, the blessed holy fool Procopius of Ustyug lived there. He lived on the porch of the temple and for some time began to fervently urge all people to repent, because the city was being punished for sins. And the wrath of God can be turned away only by repentance. They laughed at him, chased him away. After some time, a dark cloud leaped over the city, it became dark as a night, a storm broke out. Procopius Ustyuzhsky stood in the temple and prayed in front of the icon of the Annunciation: "Slap me out of the Book of Life, Lord, but save these people." And when people, frightened by the elemental power of unprecedented strength, began to pray and repent, on the icon of the Annunciation of the Mother of God appeared the world, elapsed in several streams,a cloud departed from the city and 20 versts from Veliky Ustyug, in a famous grove, broke out in a hail of stone, which for several miles completely burned down the forest.
The sign of a warning about future heavy events is also considered the fall of the icons. It is often said that when an icon falls out of the shrine, it is a sign of an event or a large-scale character, such as a war, or some adverse event for a particular family.
Most believers consider the myrrh of the icon as a gracious sign. Miro, exuded by miraculous icons, is collected and distributed to parishioners, as it cures many diseases, including incurable diseases.
The famous and revered icon of the Mother of God of Tikhvin, which, according to tradition, was written by the holy Evangelist Luke, went down in history thanks to its miraculous power. In 1383, 70 years before the capture and destruction of Constantinople (Constantinople) by the Turks, the icon miraculously disappeared from Byzantium. This was considered a bad omen - and indeed, in 1453, the Byzantine Empire fell under the blows of the Ottoman Turks. In the same year of 1383, the disappeared shrine appeared in an extraordinary way in Russia, in the land of Novgorod.
The chronicles report that shortly after the appearance of the image in the land of Novgorod, the trade guests from Novgorod region visited Constantinople, where the patriarch himself asked them if they could not hear about the newly-minted miraculous icon of the Mother of God in Russia. The merchants told everything they knew about the appearance of Tikhvin. When they compared the time of the disappearance of the image from Constantinople and its appearance on Tikhvinka, and also compared their descriptions, it turned out that this is about the same icon.
Three times the wooden church built for the newly-minted icon burned, but every time the image remained unharmed. At the beginning of the 16th century, the Grand Prince Vasily III built a stone church for the wonderworking image, and his son Tsar Ivan the Terrible, who came to worship the shrine, ordered the Tikhvin Assumption Monastery to be founded specifically to preserve the image and its prayer glorification. Much later, in 1773, the city of Tikhvin is famous, having grown over the monastery walls, will receive the status of a city, but by tradition it has its history since 1383 - from the first appearance in Russia of the icon of the Tikhvin Mother of God.
In times of troubled hard times, in the most difficult period of the war for freedom and national independence for Russia, the Tikhvin Icon showed another miracle,as a result of which they began to honor her as the Protector of the northwestern lands of Russia.
In 1613, the Novgorod and its environs occupied Swedish troops. Seized and Tikhvin monastery, but were forced to leave it. Then the Swedes besieged the monastery and began a siege. The local population, who sought protection and shelter in the monastery walls, tearfully prayed to the Mother of God before her miraculously for salvation from the enemy. And then one of the worshipers, who had previously healed the image of blindness, appeared in a dream, the Most Holy Theotokos, and commanded to declare her will to everyone: “Let them take my icon and walk around the walls and see the mercy of God!” And they did. When the Swedes saw this procession, they suddenly became panicked, and the army turned to flee.
A year later, the Swedes again attempted to seize the monastery - this time it was decided to wipe the monastery from the face of the earth, and to cut the miraculous image into pieces with axes. Having learned about these plans, the defenders of the monastery were frightened for the shrine and decided to take her to Moscow. But the icon could not even budge - it seemed to have grown to the wall. This was considered a sign and began to pray to the Virgin for salvation.And then suddenly the enemy saw a huge Russian army marching towards the monastery, and in fear of the Swedes fled from the monastery - now forever.
In February 1617, in the village of Stolbovo, near Tikhvin, Russians and Swedes concluded the Stolbovsky peace at the icon of the Mother of God of Tikhvin. Under the terms of this treaty, the invaders liberated Novgorod, Staraya Russa, Ladoga and other cities.
Actually, since then, this icon is considered the protector and patroness of the north-western edges of Russia. The legend about the icon lists many of the wonders it has created, it is also honored as a guardian of children and youth. The celebration of the Tikhvin Icon is July 9 (old style - June 26).
In Soviet times, at the very beginning of the anti-Church struggle, the Bolsheviks faced the enormous religious power of the Russian people, who firmly proclaimed: “God is with us!” Using the famine in the Volga region to launch a decisive blow to the Church, the Soviet authorities began in 1922 to seize church values, but met active resistance. Despite the help of the dissenters of the dissenters, the campaign did not go as it seemed to the godless.The triumph of Orthodoxy was testified not only by the inflexibility of the persecuted clergy and laity, but also by numerous miracles and renewals of icons.
February 16, 1922 in the village. Sofyino at the peasant in the eyes of citizens updated three icons, among them - Serafim Sarovsky. In the two-week state synopsis of the headquarters in Kirsanovsky district from March 5 to March 22, 1922 it was said: “In Inzhavinsky volost there are rumors that in the forest, 4 miles from Inzhavino, 2 icons were updated in the desert where the nuns live. In with. Usovo Kurovschinskoy parish updated 2 icons. In February and half of March, 13 icons were renewed in Kirsanovsky district. ” From March 20 to April 5, 1922, it was reported in the government insight that “Kirsanovsky district had undergone epidemics of the distribution of updated icons. During this period, updated 37 icons. They are withdrawn, is under investigation. Priests are invited to update the icons to perform prayers, where citizens turn for clarification, they do not enter into big arguments, but say that it is God's grace. Such cases in Kobyaki, Sokolovo, Kirsanov. "
For 1924, according to official data, updated to 1000 icons. In 1925, the Lipetsk Regional Committee reported that only “in one Gryazevsky parish, about 60 icons were renewed in 10 villages”.
From the village of Pavlovka, the Sosnovsky volost reported that “in July 1926, a miraculous well opened on the edge of the village”. In August, a procession was carried out to the well, gathering up to a thousand people. The pilgrimage continued until late autumn. Only on November 7 “the well was closed, the chapel was dismantled, the frame was broken, the icon was handed over to the believers”.
Gradually, the number of updates icons decreased. Orthodox clergy and laity were subjected to repression, while the remaining population increasingly acquired the features of a “Soviet person”, more often indifferent or even hostile to manifestations of any kind of religiosity.
The history of the Orthodox Church has about a thousand images, famous for miracles in the entire history of Christianity. Most of them are images of the Mother of God, the Heavenly Intercessor of the human race.
The main reason for honoring one image or another miraculously served was the certified talent of concrete help to people, be it healing of the sick, interception from enemies, fires, elements. Sometimes this help was preceded or accompanied by some kind of supernatural event: the Mother of God herself came in a dream or in a vision and reportedwhere and how to get her image; icons paraded through the air, descended or ascended by themselves; they were observed to shine when they were found (Eletskaya-Chernigovskaya, Czestochowa-Tyvrovskaya, Tsarevokokshaiskaya, Zhirovitskaya, “Miluyuschaya”, Akhtyrskaya, Galichskaya, Dubovitskaya), aroma was fragrant (“Tearless”), sounded a voice (“Fast Listener”, Yugsha, Yugsha, Yugsha, Yugsha, Yugsha, Yugsha Solovetskaya), the icon itself was updated (Kasperovskaya) or the image on it came to life (“Unexpected Joy”, Seraphim-Ponetaevskaya).
Some images miraculously shed blood, tears, myrrh. The outflow of blood (Slave, Dolissa, Czestochowa, Iversk, Cypriot, Pakhromskaya, Unexpected Joy) usually occurred "from an injured image - to incriminate people who insulted the shrine. Tears flowing from the Most Holy Mother of God (" Weeping ", Tikhvin-Athos, Ilinskaya-Chernigovskaya, Pryazhevskaya, Ryaditenskaya, Kazanskaya-Vysochinovskaya, Kazanskaya-Kargopolskaya," Affection "- Novgorodskaya, Kaplunovskaya, Mirozhskaya," Znamenie "- Novgorodskaya, Korsunskaya-Izborskaya) were perceived as a sign of the mourning of the Mother of God of sin ah human and as a sign of the mercy of the Lady crying about her children.
From April 16 to April 24, 1662 the Ilinsko-Chernigov Icon of the Mother of God wept.It happened four years after writing the image. Subsequently, this icon became famous for many marvelous miracles described by St. Dimitry of Rostov in the book "Runo Irrigated."
In 1854, the Bishop of Melchisedec Romanesky became one of the eyewitnesses to the outflow of tears from the icon, which was later called the Weeping (in the Romanian Sokol monastery). Vladyka said that such events took place in ancient times and that this "always foreshadowed severe trials for the Church of Christ and for the Fatherland."
Church legend knows several icons from which the holy myrrh has emanated. In the XIII century, after the fervent prayer of the blessed Procopius and people about salvation from the stone hail of the Great Ustyug, the icon of the Annunciation (Ustyuzhsky) flowed the peace - a sign of the work done over the city of mercy of the Mother of God. September 16, 1392 the world originated from the right hand of Our Lady on the Tolga icon. On the fifth week of Great Lent in 1635 in the Orange Monastery of the Nizhny Novgorod Diocese of Nizhny Novgorod during evening glorification with an akathist at the Vladimir-Orange Icon from the head of the Infant Jesus, the world was over, and the whole church was filled with fragrance.In 1848, in Moscow, in the house of Colonel D.N. Boncheskul, there was a list of the miraculous icon “The Hand-Sack of the Sinful” just written. On Easter, the icon glistened and saw drops similar to rain on it. To the touch they were oily and fragrant. Through the anointing with wonderful moisture, the sick were healed. The image was donated to the temple, where he became famous for other miracles.
Along with the myrrh-streaming, the renewal of the icon is a sign. It is a wonderful, spontaneous clarification of the image on the icons. The nature of the updates is varied. Sometimes the icon is updated gradually, over several days or weeks, sometimes instantly, with a glow or a flash of light emanating from it. Sometimes only a part of the image is clarified. It happens that the updated icon begins to smell sweet.
The renewal of the icon is perceived by the Church as a sign of God's mercy, as a call to the people for repentance and fervent prayer. The facts of the miraculous renewal of icons have been known in the Orthodox Church for a long time.
So, in 1739, Kalitinsky, the owner of the town of Tyvrovo Podolsk diocese, purchased a list of the miraculous Czestochowa icon of the Mother of God and placed it in his home.A year later, an extraordinary radiance began to emanate from the icon. The icon was transferred to the local church and placed in an altar in a high place; Many worshipers flocked to her worship, receiving help and healing. The miraculous image was named Czestochowa-Tyvrovsky.
In February 1840, in the Kherson province, the landowner Kasperova, during a night prayer in front of an icon of the 16th century, noticed that the faces of the Mother of God and the Baby God brightened. Subsequently, from the icon, called Kasperovsky, many miracles and healings were performed, on the basis of which it was recognized as miraculous.
In the history of Russia, there is a case of the miraculous darkening of the icon. Theodore Icon of the Mother of God was glorified by miracles in the XII century. It was she who in 1613 in the Ipatiev Kostroma Monastery blessed the first kingdom of the Romanov dynasty, Mikhail Feodorovich, to be the kingdom, and from that time she was considered the family shrine of the Romanovs' house. In the period from 1914 to 1918, before the villainous murder of the last sovereign and his august family, the ancient wonderworking Theodore Icon, which was located in Kostroma, turned black, although in 1913, as evidenced by the photographs, the details of the image were clearly visible. The darkened icon remains throughout the XX century.
From the book N.