Three ways of management: situational, project, ideological. Part 2

Three ways of management: situational, project, ideological. Part 2.

The beginning of the material is here.

The project management method is determined by the purpose of creating a new one.

But not as new as the 28th new knocked-up stool, but one that was not there before.

This is the key difference with situational management.

The latter does not imply novelty. And it is precisely in comparison with the project one that another characteristic of situational control can be derived - it is inertial. Saving inertia is his goal, be it the inertia of peace or the inertia of constant speed.

But the project always sets itself the task of changing inertia. Whether by changing the amount of mass, by giving acceleration. This already puts this method of management in a hierarchically higher position, because situational management will be only a derivative of the project one.

Project and situational management methods may interfere and conflict.

They are based on theories and practices of motivation, Parkinson's laws and other popular explanations for why the control element, assigned to the performance of an elementary situational function, still does not fulfill it.

A typical example. The plant produces bricks. In his office the director-owner wants to sell the business profitably. The chief engineer wants to see out until retirement without straining. The technologist wants to push the chief engineer. Glavbuh intends to steal money. The secretary needs a resume entry to find a better job.There is no one at all interested in making bricks..

Each person has their own project. And they direct the main efforts to its implementation. And they perform their direct service functions on the situational one only to the extent that does not interfere with the main project.

Every control element is always in several levels of control methods. This applies even to non-living systems. Your advanced car will refuse to perform its functions if self-diagnosis shows that it can get damaged in its current state. A completely alien to you project will force you to come to the service station for the correction of a minor or even non-existent malfunction.

Appeal to projects comes from the realization of the futility of the situational method.

Earlier, I noted that management is a decision-making process in conditions of incompleteinformation. And the less complete the information, the harder it is to make the right decision, the more skillful management is required. At the situational level, information is almost complete, the control element only needs to correctly determine the incoming information (at the level of determining the color of the signal of a traffic light) and then proceed according to a predetermined algorithm. Errors here are only possible in the excesses of the performer.

It becomes more difficult if the incoming information stably loses its completeness. The control system in this case loses its balance and stability, the number of errors in the definition of information increases, the number of managerial errors increases accordingly. It becomes obvious that the situational control method ceases to cope with the task.

In a broad sense, information can also be attributedresources. Let us rephrase the definition. Governance is a decision making process in the face of a lack of resources. In practice, this is always the case.In cases where resources are absolutely sufficient, management is not required. If your troops have a total superiority over the enemy in humans, in technology, in ammunition and in fuel, then you can withdraw from control by giving a simple order to attack. And the offensive will be successful. But if you do not have enough resources, then you will have to manage with all your might.

It is possible and such a situation in which the resources you have not enough totally. In this case, you are clearly not able to conduct successful management by previous actions, according to algorithms and instructions.

In both situations, when you do not have enough information or not enough resources, it becomes clear to you that the preservation of inertia leads you to collapse. This is quite easily calculated, especially if the problem is not only possible in the future, but has already arrived. We have to admit that the situational method of management is no longer effective. It is necessary to change the inertia, to create a new situation in which your position with information and resources will change for the better. Then people think about projects and move on to project management.

This sequence works the same way in the event of a drop in revenue at a stall with shawarma, and in the case of a decrease in GDP in the state, and in every war.

In direct opposition, project management wins over situational.

This is described in all works on strategy. The essence of any strategy is to create a new one, to create such a new situation in which the enemy’s tactics will not have the answers. Strategy versus tactics is a design versus situational response pattern.

In military affairs, tactics are a craft that is fully formalized in combat regulations. And there are these regulations only for the tactical level of the troops, they are two types: "platoon-company" and "battalion-regiment". For the operational and strategic levels of direct and comprehensive instructions is not created. Management there is no longer a craft, but art. And the works on strategy describe not actions in standard situations, but actions that create new situations - projects. Strategic research is much closer to philosophy than to applied practice. This makes it possible to use military strategic methods in other areas of human activity: in business, in management in general.

Project management is always of course.

Situational management is infinite by its nature.The control function at the situational level cannot be terminated. Only the action of external causes can interrupt it. This may be the death of the control object. This may be the abolition, creation or radical change of the control function as the result of the execution of a project.

The project, as indicated above, aims to change the inertia of the system. The change of inertia cannot be infinite: on the one hand it is limited to zero, on the other - infinity. The task of obtaining new resources or new information as a method for solving managerial problems cannot be set in the dimensions of infinity, nor can it be provided with infinite resources. Any practical project always has targets.

The property of the limb in order attached to the project managementlimitationin all aspects. This is a very important factor, from which two conclusions follow.

The project should provide benefits from participation in it for all participants.

The limitations of goals, resources and time makes it possible to calculate profits and losses. For the management function itself that performs project management, this is assumed to be known.For all objects and subjects involved in it, both managers at lower levels and managed ones, this is a question that has its own answer. Inclusion in the project activity means for them a change in inertia. This in itself causes objective resistance that requires overcoming. This can cause negative changes for subjects and objects personally. Therefore, any change for them requires compensation - a clear benefit from participation (applies to people, and resources, and systems).

As a result, not every project can be implemented, even if it is not a direct hostile act, which is opposed by the enemy. Project management is also experiencing internal resistance from its own elements.

The second conclusion will seem paradoxical to many. There is a difference between project management and strategic management, between project and strategy, this is not the same thing, although the concepts are quite close. I see the difference precisely in the awareness of the limitedness of projects (and, as a consequence, the condition of benefit in participation). For strategies, such conditions are not set, but people tend to consider strategies as universality.And as the decisive answer, and as the actions directed to infinity.

However, it is worth looking at strategies from the point of view of projects. And the contradiction becomes noticeable. Strategies are not universal in reality. There are as many possible strategies as possible projects. Any strategy can be opposed to counterstrategies.And for the successful implementation of the strategy, it is required not only that the participants accept it itself (from the sense of benefit), but also opponents.In other words, the parties to the strategy are both parties: those that implement it, and those against whom it is directed.

This ambiguity arises from the union under the designation of the "strategy" of two different entities. A strategy with a specific goal is a project. A strategy directed to infinity is ideology.

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  • Three ways of management: situational, project, ideological. Part 2

    Three ways of management: situational, project, ideological. Part 2

    Three ways of management: situational, project, ideological. Part 2

    Three ways of management: situational, project, ideological. Part 2

    Three ways of management: situational, project, ideological. Part 2

    Three ways of management: situational, project, ideological. Part 2

    Three ways of management: situational, project, ideological. Part 2

    Three ways of management: situational, project, ideological. Part 2

    Three ways of management: situational, project, ideological. Part 2

    Three ways of management: situational, project, ideological. Part 2

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