Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris

Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic "garbage"

“Alcohol in small doses is useful in any quantities” - doctors like to remember this joke, explaining why they prefer not to tell patients about the possible benefits of moderate drinking. The fact that excessive use of alcohol is harmful to health, no one doubts. But over the moderate doses of the battles are not the first year.

The way alcohol affects the body has been studied for a long time. Perhaps the most controversial research on the effects of alcohol on the brain. Drinking alcohol is known to harm the brain in the long run, but on the other hand, alcohol improves memory and learning.

American scientists have once again proved that it is important to note to use, in moderate doses, good for health. Specialists from the Medical Center of the University of Rochester say that a couple of glasses of wine a day will help not only to relax and escape after a busy day, but in the literal sense to clear the brain.

It turns out that low doses of alcohol help reduce inflammation and eliminate toxins and dangerous proteins associated with Alzheimer's disease from the brain.

“Long-term consumption of excess ethanol is known to have an adverse effect on the central nervous system. However, in this study, we showed for the first time that low doses of alcohol are potentially beneficial to brain health, namely, they improve its ability to remove waste, ”says lead author Maiken Nedergaard.

Her team focused on studying the complex glymphatic system (glymphatic system), which removes toxins from the brain. Actually, Nedergor and her colleagues for the first time described this system.

The researchers found that the spinal fluid that “stores” the brain inside the skull is pumped into the skull and pumped back, bringing with it all the metabolic “garbage” that has accumulated between the cells.

Among these wastes are tau proteins and beta amyloids. Both are known to be able to accumulate into sticky plaques that “choke” neurons and contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia.

Other works have shown that the glyphic system is more active during sleep (and the position of a person in a dream affects the process of cleansing the brain); In addition, it became known that during a stroke or injury, this useful cleaning system is damaged, but the exercises, on the contrary, help to restore it.

In the course of the new work, the authors also followed the glymphatic system and the changes that occur during chronic alcoholism and moderate alcohol consumption. Tests were conducted on mice.

Studying the brain of animals that for a long time had to “drink hard”, experts observed high levels of the molecular marker of inflammation, especially in cells called astrocytes (they are the key regulators of the glymphatic system). It was also noted impaired cognitive abilities and motor skills of rodents.

Meanwhile, the second group consumed small doses of alcohol (similar to 2.5 units of alcohol per day per person - this is about 75 milliliters of vodka). In these animals, much less inflammatory markers were observed, and their glyphic system more effectively cleared the brain of waste.

It is curious that the results of the second group turned out to be better than the data of the third group - the control group, in which there were sober mice. Although the cognitive and motor functions in the third and second group were the same.

The results of the work, published in the publication Scientific Reports, speak for themselves: the use of small doses of alcohol for the brain is obvious. The authors also note that, probably, constant and moderate alcohol consumption improves the overall health of the brain.

In addition, it was previously found that alcohol - again in limited quantities - is good for the heart and for general health.

Alcohol in small doses can be beneficial to health. This is all the more scientific data. Alcohol reduces cholesterol in the blood, prevents the formation of blood clots, dilates blood vessels and thus contributes to more intensive blood circulation. As a result, the likelihood of developing cardiovascular and some other diseases is reduced.

In the study of 1900 people hospitalized with myocardial infarction, it was shown that those patients who took alcoholic beverages seven times a week during the year before the heart attack, 32% less often died from it compared to the sober.People who take alcoholic beverages less than 7 times a week, died 21% less often within 4 years after a heart attack compared to non-drinkers.

The results of another study showed that in elderly people who take daily alcoholic beverages in moderate amounts, the risk of developing heart disease is reduced by 47% compared with non-drinkers, regardless of age, race, blood pressure, diabetes, smoking and other factors. The study involved more than 2,200 people aged about 74 years.

Only one percent of regular red wine drinkers found polyps. Those who drink beer and liqueurs are in 18 percent of cases. And for non-drinkers - at 12.

The best alcoholic drink, apparently, is a natural wine from red grapes. Although another quality alcohol will be useful.

The dosage is better to pick up on well-being. The limit is visible where the feeling of pleasure from the drink gives way to negative feelings (50 grams of alcohol per day).

First you need to understand what "moderate use" is. The fact is that in different countries the norms vary greatly. The differences begin with what is considered one “portion” (or “drink”): in the UK, for example, it is 8 grams of alcohol, and in Japan it is almost 20.In the United States, 14 grams of alcohol is considered a serving: this is the equivalent of 350 milliliters (approximately a can) of beer, 150 milliliters (approximately a glass) of wine, or 45 milliliters (approximately of a shot glass) of vodka.

Accordingly, ideas about when to stop are also different everywhere. In the UK, it is estimated that 3–4 servings (that is, 24–32 grams of alcohol) per day for a man “do not entail any noticeable harm to health”; for women, these are 2-3 servings (16-24 grams). In Japan, men are officially recommended to drink no more than two servings of sake per day (39.5 grams of alcohol); guidelines for women are absent. Finally, in the US, men are advised to drink no more than two servings per day (28 grams), and women - no more than one (14 grams). By the way, the norms for women are less, not only because they usually weigh less, but also because of sex differences in alcohol metabolism.

Different ideas about moderation lead to some confusion in talking about the benefits and harms of "moderate consumption", but still it is usually about 10-30 grams of alcohol per day. And, apparently, alcohol of any kind: attempts to find out which drinks have a better effect on health, and which are worse (for example, whether or not red wine really has an advantage) did not produce convincing results.

It should be noted that there is a serious problem with the science of the benefits and harms of alcohol: long-term randomized studies (that is, those where people would be randomly assigned to groups and given alcohol for a long time, but not to others) were not conducted on this topic. All existing work can be divided into two types: short-term, studying the effect of alcohol on specific physiological parameters, and long-term observational, which usually compares the health of those who drink moderately, and those who do not drink at all. But there are problems with both types of research: short-term effects can reveal only short-term effects, while long-term observational ones lack randomization, that is, randomness of distribution. The group of those who do not drink at all may include, for example, people with alcohol dependence in the past or people with serious illnesses, including mental ones, and these factors can strongly influence their life expectancy and, accordingly, the results.

Benefit or harm

However, in the absence of other scientific data, one must rely on those that exist.Numerous studies in different countries have shown that people who moderately drink alcohol have slightly lower mortality rates than non-drinkers. A meta-analysis of 34 papers on this topic revealed that those men and women who consumed an average of 6 grams of alcohol (that is, about half of the American portion) per day had the lowest mortality rate.

Such studies have strict critics: the authors of several review analyzes state that many works on this topic contain errors and, for example, if we exclude people with alcohol addiction in the past from the group of “sober-tempered people,” the seemingly salutary effect of using small doses disappears.

In any case, it is important here not to be tempted to see persistent causal relationships where, in fact, there is only a correlation. Mortality rates even on a large sample can be influenced by hundreds of different factors that are very difficult to take into account in the study. The fact that moderately drinking people live longer does not necessarily mean that it is alcohol that lengthens their life. Although there are grounds for such an assumption.

A large number of scientific works have shown a connection between moderate alcohol consumption and a reduced risk of developing various cardiovascular problems. Among them - ischemic heart disease, heart failure, stroke, peripheral artery disease. Alcohol is associated with lower mortality in people with high blood pressure.

Some studies show that light drinkers, both women and men, have a lower risk of cholelithiasis compared to non-drinkers.

Rather convincing evidence exists that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of developing diabetes.

However, all these positive effects disappear with an increase in the amount of alcohol - usually after 3-4 servings per day in men and 2-3 in women. That is, with a more intense use of alcohol, the association with positive health indicators is lost and a negative correlation begins to be noted: the more you drink, the worse your health. Graphs in many studies on this topic resemble the letter “J”: with moderate use, the incidence / mortality goes slightly down compared to the “zero” level of use, and then with increasing dose linearly upwards.

But do not forget that the abuse of alcohol can lead to the development of seven types of cancer, as well as accelerate cellular aging of the body.

Statistical confirmation of the benefits of alcohol is a study conducted by Dutch doctors in the city of Zutphen. For 40 years, scientists have observed the lives of 1373 residents of this town, born in 1900-1920.

In the group of subjects who took no more than 20 grams of pure alcohol per day, the relative mortality index was 36% lower than in the group of total non-drinkers. In moderate-drinking people, researchers found a 34% reduction in mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Another interesting pattern is that people who drink wine lived 3.8 years longer than others.

But it is believed that:

In the body of each adult, about 10 grams of ethyl alcohol is produced per day. Alcohol is one of the hormones of a person’s psychological defense, on which his mood depends. In addition to alcohol, more than 500 internal drugs are produced in the human body.

But if a person begins to introduce alcohol from the outside - the internal production stops.One glass of champagne reduces the production of domestic alcohol by 20% for 30 days. Alcohol is necessary for a person only if it is produced inside the person. Any external introduction of alcohol, like any other hormone, leads to a decrease in vital function (the production of this hormone by the body).

Thus, the statement about the need to "replenish" the body with some amount of alcohol is a conscious lie.

Instead of pouring stress on alcohol and forgetting about everything, you can endure this psychological pressure and thereby strengthen the psyche, analyze what caused the stress and how you can avoid the situation that led to this state.

Just like in the gym: the more we maintain the load, the stronger our muscles become over time. So with the psyche. Over time, it will be easier to “pull yourself together” in extreme situations for your psyche. I agree that it is easier to drink 20 grams and relax, than to endure a strong emotional load, but this will not work. It is easier to keep yourself in the comfort zone, but this will not lead to anything good either.

The cult of alcohol does not justify itself.

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  • Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris

    Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris

    Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris

    Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris

    Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris

    Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris

    Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris

    Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris

    Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris

    Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris

    Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris Small doses of alcohol clear the brain of metabolic debris