Rare fish in the deep sea
In the middle of the last century began to actively explore the underwater world. Millions of different species inhabit the bottom of the world ocean, many of which are still unknown to us.
Look at the selection of rare fish, which turned out to detect humanity.
1. Scorpion Ambon (English Ambon Scorpionfish, Latin Pteroidichthys amboinensis).
Opened in 1856. Easily recognizable by the huge "eyebrows" - specific growths above the eyes. Able to change color and fade. He leads a "partisan" hunt - masquerading at the bottom and waiting for the victim. It is not uncommon and rather well studied, but its extravagant appearance is simply impossible to note! (Roger Steene / Conservation International)
2. Psychedelic frog fish (English Psychedelic Frogfish, Latin Histiophryne psychedelica).
Opened in 2009. A very unusual fish - the tail fin is bent to the side, the pectoral fins are modified and look like the paws of land animals. The head is large, widely spaced eyes are directed forward, as in vertebrates, so that the fish has a peculiar "facial expression." The color of the fish is yellow or reddish with winding white and blue stripes, diverging in different directions from the eyes of blue color.Unlike other fish that swim, this species moves as if jumping, pushing from the bottom with pectoral fins and pushing water out of the gill slits, creating jet thrust. The tail of the fish is bent to the side and cannot directly direct the movement of the body, because it oscillates from side to side. Also, the fish can crawl along the bottom with the help of pectoral fins, turning them like with their feet. (David Hall / EOL Rapid Response Team)
3. Rag-picker (Eng. Leafy Seadragon, lat. Phycodurus eques).
Opened in 1865. Representatives of this species of fish are notable for the fact that their entire body and head is covered with processes that mimic algal thallus. Although these processes are similar to fins, they do not take part in swimming, they serve as a disguise (both when hunting for shrimp and for protection from enemies). Inhabits the waters of the Indian Ocean, washing southern, southeastern and southwestern Australia, as well as northern and eastern Tasmania. It feeds on plankton, small shrimps, algae. With no teeth, the rag swallows whole food. (lecates / flickr)
4. Moonfish (English Ocean Sunfish, Latin Mola mola).
Opened in 1758. The body compressed from the sides is extremely high and short, which gives the fish an extremely strange look: it resembles a disk.The tail is very short, wide and truncated; dorsal, caudal, and anal fins are interconnected. The skin of the moon fish is thick and elastic, covered with small bone tubercles. You can often see the moon-fish, lying on its side on the surface of the water. Adult moonfish is a very poor swimmer, unable to overcome a strong current. It feeds on plankton, as well as squid, larvae of eels, salps, ctenophores and jellyfish. It can reach gigantic sizes of several tens of meters and weigh 1.5 tons. (Franco Banfi)
5. Broad nose chimera (English Broadnose chimaera, Latin Rhinochimaera atlantica).
Opened in 1909. Completely disgusting-looking jelly fish. Inhabits the deep seabed of the Atlantic Ocean and feeds on mollusks. Studied very poorly. (Jay Burnett, NOAA / NMFS / NEFSC)
6. Shroud of a bearer (English Frilled Shark, Latin. Chlamydoselachus anguineus).
Opened in 1884. Outwardly, these sharks look much more like a strange sea serpent or eel than their closest relatives. In a fringed shark, the gill openings, which number six on each side, are covered by skin folds. In this case, the membranes of the first gill slit cross the throat of the fish and are interconnected, forming a wide skin blade.Along with the shark-goblin is one of the rarest sharks on the planet. No more than a hundred specimens of these fish are known. They are studied extremely badly. (Awashima Marine Park / Getty Images)
7. Latimeria Indonesian (Eng. Indonesian Coelacanth, lat. Latimeria menadoensis).
Opened in 1999. Living fossil and probably the oldest fish on Earth. Prior to the discovery of the first representative of the squad of celicants, to whom the coelacanth belongs, he was considered completely extinct. The time of divergence of two modern types of coelacanth is 30–40 Ma. Live captured no more than a dozen. (Pearson - Benjamin Cummings)
8. Hairy monkfish (eng. Hairy Angler, Latin: Caulophryne polynema).
Opened in 1930. Very strange and terrible fish that live on a deep bottom, where there is no sunlight - from 1 km and deeper. To lure the inhabitants of the sea depths uses a special glowing growth on the forehead, characteristic of the whole group of fishworms. Thanks to a special metabolism and extremely sharp teeth, he can eat anything that comes, even if the victim is many times larger and is also a predator. It breeds no less strange than it looks and feeds - due to the unusually harsh conditions and rarity of the fish, the male (ten times smaller for the female) is attached to the flesh of his chosen one and transmits everything you need through blood. (BBC)
9. Fish-drop (English Blobfish, Latin Psychrolutes marcidus).
Opened in 1926.Often mistaken for a joke. In fact, this is a completely real kind of deep-sea bottom sea fishes of the family of psychrolute ones, which on the surface acquire a “jelly” look with a “sad expression”. Studied poorly, but this is enough to recognize her as one of the most bizarre. In the photo - a copy of the Australian Museum. (Kerryn Parkinson / Australian Museum)
10. Malorotka macropinna (English, Latin. Macropinna microstoma) - the winner in freakiness.
Opened in 1939. It lives at a very great depth, therefore, is studied poorly. In particular, the principle of fish view was not entirely clear. It was believed that she should experience very great difficulties due to the fact that she sees only upwards. Only in 2009 the structure of the eye of this fish was fully studied. Apparently, when trying to study it earlier, the fish simply could not tolerate the change in pressure. The most remarkable feature of this species is the transparent dome-shaped shell, which covers its head from above and on its sides, and the large, usually upward, cylindrical eyes that are under this shell. The dense and elastic covering shell is attached to the scales of the back at the back, and on the sides to the wide and transparent eye-bones, which provide protection for the organs of vision.This covering structure is usually lost (or, at least, very badly damaged) when fish are lifted to the surface in trawls and nets, so until recently it was not known about its existence. Under the covering sheath is a chamber filled with a clear liquid, in which, in fact, are the eyes of the fish; the eyes of living fish are colored bright green and separated by a thin bone septum, which, extending backward, expands and accommodates the brain. At the front of each eye, but behind the mouth, is a large, rounded pocket that contains an olfactory receptor outlet. That is to say that at first glance in photos of live fish it seems to be eyes, in fact, is an olfactory organ. The green color is caused by the presence of a specific yellow pigment. It is believed that this pigment provides a special filtering of light coming from above, and reduces its brightness, which allows fish to discern the bioluminescence of potential prey.