Amos -smalla prophet, one of the rare examples of the prophets of northern Israel who left their mark on the Bible. One day, sensing a call from God, he entered the temple. It happened in Bethel (in Hebrew, Beit El), a small place in the north of then-Israel. He interrupted the service and began to convict people of sins on behalf of God. At first, the parishioners were confused and did not respond properly. However, after Amos began to do this regularly, the Jews began to clash with him. The main enemy of Amos was the priest Amasia. A dialogue was repeated between Amos and Amaziah in the seventh chapter, which shows what really happened. (1:17)
“And Amaziah the priest of Bethel sent to Jeroboam, king of Israel, to say: Amos makes outrage against you in the midst of the house of Israel; the earth cannot endure all his words; for Amos says so:Jeroboam will die by the sword, but Israel will surely be taken away captive from her land. And Amaziah said to Amos, A seer! go and go into the land of Judah; eat bread and prophesy there, and do not prophesy again in Bethel, for it is the king's shrine and the royal house.And Amos answered and said to Amaziah: I am not a prophet, and not the son of a prophet, I was a shepherd, and collected sycomore. But the Lord took me from the sheep and the Lord said to me:go prophesy to my people Israel. Now hear the word of the Lord. You say:do not prophesy against Israel and speak words against the house of Isaac. This is what the Lord says:your wife will be dishonored in the city; your sons and daughters shall fall by the sword; your land will be divided by a verse of faith, and you will die in an unclean land, and Israel will certainly be brought out of its land. " (3:02)
Amos is one of the last prophets of the Northern Kingdom before its catastrophe. He says that he was not going to be a prophet. He was a simple shepherd, but there was no one else — and the Lord chose him.
So the Lord asks the prophet Isaiah: “Whom shall I send? and who will go for us? ”Isaiah says:“ Here I am, send me. ” This describes the readiness to serve the Lord. Then Jeremiah will say: “I could live happily ever after, but I say what I don’t like, and for this I suffer persecution, but the Lord obliges me to say this.” This is very characteristic of the prophets. They are not at all proud of their position, they are not looking for any benefits.On the contrary, they would be happy to say what is pleasant, as the court prophets say. But the Lord urges to speak not that which caresses the ear. (4:10)
And now the prophet Amos announces the judgment of God over various nations. It starts from afar. He also speaks of Damascus, that is, the future Syrians, the Philistines, the Phoenicians, the Edomites, the Moabites. He warns all pagans that the Lord will strike them for their sins. What are sins? Pay attention.Thus saith the Lord: For three crimes of Damascus and for four, I will not spare him, because they threshed Gilead with iron threshing. And I will send fire on Hazael's house, and he will devour the palaces of Benhadad. And I break the shutters of Damascus. " For beating people up. This is remembered war with Gilead.
He speaks about the Philistines in a similar way: “I will not spare her for the three crimes of Gaza and four, because they brought all of them into captivity in order to betray them to Edom.” That is, again, for cruelty to people during the war.
About the Phoenicians: because they transferred all the prisoners to Edom and did not remember the fraternal union. About Edomites: because Edom persecuted his brother, suppressed feelings of kinship. The Edomites were descendants of Esau, the brother of Isaac. (5:50)
Of the sons of Ammon:... because they dissected pregnant women in Gilead to expand their limits
Their sins do not become virtues because the will of God can happen through them. “For the three crimes of Gaza and for four I will not spare herand three crimes of tyrand the three crimes of Edom. " Very often in prophecies, proper names are used instead of peoples. The ancestor's own name is called: "and you, Judas," which means, "and you, Jews."
Israel may suddenly recall its old name, Jacob. "I will take you as a captive, Jacob ...That is, it is an appeal to a proper name, by which is meant the whole nation. Sometimes this appeal goes not to the ancestor, but to the city: Gaza, or Damascus, or Tire.
Amos proclaims the judgment that the Lord will create over all nations. This is not fatal predestination. Destiny is what has already passed. What you built, and not what awaits you in the future. (8:15)
Having convicted these people of their cruelty and that they shed a lot of innocent blood, the prophet Amos goes to the Jews. “I will not spare him for the three crimes of Judah and for four, because they rejected the law of the Lord, and did not keep His decrees, and their idols, after which their fathers went, seduced them from the path.”Unlike the pagans, the Lord does not expose the Jews to the fact that they are immoral, but that they have forgotten the law of the Lord.
The Prophet Amos says that Gentiles are judged according to the law of conscience written in their hearts. The Apostle Paul will repeat this thought later.
Finally, Amos goes to Israel, speaking in the name of the Lord: “I will not spare him, because they sell the right for silver and the poor for a pair of sandals. They thirst for the dust of the earth to be on the head of the poor, and the way of the meek they pervert; even father and son go to the same woman to defame my holy name. They shall rest on the garments taken as pledge on every altar, and they shall drink the wine that is charged from the accused in the house of their gods. " (10:08)
"They shall recline upon the garments taken as pledge on every altar." What does it mean? In the law of Moses there was a commandment that if you took something as a pledge, you must give it to a person before sunset, because he gave you the last thing, he will not sleep on anything or will not walk in anything. This was by no means to leave. “I destroyed before them the Amorite, whose height was like the height of a cedar, and which was strong as an oak; I destroyed his fruit above and his roots below.I also brought you up out of the land of Egypt and led you forty years in the wilderness to inherit the land of the Amorites. I have chosen from your sons to be prophets, and from your young men to the Nazarites; Is this not so, children of Israel? says the Lord. But you gave the Nazarites wine to drink and ordered the prophets, saying, "Do not prophesy." Behold, I will press you, as the chariot loaded with sheaves crushes, and the nimble will not begin to run, and the mighty will not hold his fortress, and the brave will not save their life, neither the archer will resist, nor the fast walker, nor the seated riding a horse will not save his life. And the bravest of the brave will run away nude that day, says the Lord (11:36)
Through the prophets, the Lord each time reminds Israel of what it meant for their ancestors to be removed from the land of Egypt. It returns them to the memory of the promise of Abraham, to the fact that their being is not important in and of itself, but is necessary for the fulfillment of God's plans.
All the prophets have the idea that Israel will not be soon, only Judea will remain. What is Judea? This is a tiny place. He is not trampled just lazy. There are great powers from the north and south, and Judea is a small place. In it lives a closed nation.If the Lord did not need him, he would have disappeared long ago, dissolved, as it happened thousands of times on earth, when a small people assimilated or dissolved into another. The only thing for which the Lord brought, gathered and preserved the Jewish people in all these twists and turns to serve the Lord. (13:09) Judea had neither economic nor political goals. Only one spiritual goal is to serve God.
Why enter first, and then go out and wander somewhere? This is because God sees it this way. Only in this connection can we talk about being chosen, about the particular fate of the Israeli people. You are given more and more will be asked of you.
Israel does not obey the prophet Amos, when the Lord through him gives revelations, warnings about the need for repentance. Israel, represented by its representatives, the priests and courtiers, drives out Amos from Bethel. (14:25)
Then Amos says: “The Lord said:behold, I will put a plumb line in the midst of my people Israel; I will not forgive him anymore. The measure of God's patience is full. Put a limit. Sees Amos and a basket with ripe fruits, as written in the eighth chapter. And we recall the vision that Joseph had in prison.There, too, was a basket that the birds had pecked. And he predicted that he would be executed. And here Amos sees a basket with ripe fruits and interprets it as a sign of the imminent death of Israel.
Amos heralds the coming of the day of the Lord. The fact is that before the prophet Amos, the messianic aspirations of Israel were aimed at earthly well-being, and many believers were waiting for an era of bliss with God, especially on earth. The day of the Lord was spoken of as the last day after which universal happiness would come on earth. It was also believed that every person yearns for the day of the Lord. Suddenly, Amos says quite differently: “Woe to those who desire the day of the Lord! Why do you need this day of the Lord? he is darkness, not light - the same as if someone ran away from a lion - and a bear would meet him, or if he came home and put his hand on the wall - and the snake would sting him. Is not the day of the Lord darkness, but light? he is darkness and there is no radiance in him. " (16:46)
And he will say: “The Lord God says: I will make the sun go down at noon and darken the earth on a bright day, and I will turn your holidays into mourning, and all your songs will be weeping, and I will lay sackcloth on all loins and baldness on every head; and I will make the country cry, as about the only son, and its end will be - like a bitter day. So, if the Israelites do not believe the calls of the Lord, then the day of the Lord will turn from the desired day of visiting God to a day of wrath and a day of doom, on a terrible day. Amos saw it. The Prophet calls the people to repentance, but does not see repentance.
At the same time, the Lord says: “I hate, reject your holidays and do not smell the victims during your solemn gatherings. If you offer me a burnt offering and a grain offering, I will not accept them, nor will I regard the thanksgiving offering of your fat calves. Remove from me the noise of your song, for the sound of your goats I will not listen. Let the court flow like water, and the truth - like a strong stream! Have you offered me sacrifices and offerings of bread in the wilderness, for forty years, the house of Israel? You wore the tabernacle of Molokhov and the star of your god Remphan, the images you made for yourself. Therefore I have transferred you for Damascus, says the Lord; The God of hosts is His name! ” (18:23)
So, the prophet Amos accuses the Jews of the fact that their paganism and deviation from faith did not begin today, but long ago. He is the first to say that the Lord does not need offerings and burnt offerings if they are not connected with the truth, with mercy and with piety, true, spiritual, internal.True, Isaiah will say much more about this, but it will be later.
So the day of the Lord for Israel, according to Amos, is near. And this day seemed quite specific. This will be relocation for Damascus. This will be the eviction of the land inhabited by northern Israelis.
In the ninth chapter it is said that Amos sees the Lord standing over the altar and saying: “Strike the lintel above the gate, so that the shoals may be shaken, and they will fall on all their heads, the rest of them I will strike with the sword: no one will run away from them and no one who wants to be saved is saved from them. ” (20:08)
That is, it is not a question of the Jerusalem temple. Maybe about Bethel. The Lord destroys his own altar. He does not need such an altar. This is the last warning from Amos.
If the altar disappears, the meaning of life disappears. Amos believes that through the Messiah in the last days in some way the kingdom of Israel, the kingdom of David will be restored. "On that day I will restore the tabernacle to David the fallen, repair the cracks in it and restore it, and build it, as in the days of the ancients, so that they would seize the remnant of Edom and all the nations, between whom My name would be announced, says the Lord,. As we see, the main pathos of the prophet Amos was the reasoning about the wrath of God over sinners who do not want to heed the call to repentance.
One way or another, every prophet calls for repentance. The Prophet Hosea does this, but he does it differently. It seems to reveal the other side of God's action in the world. He speaks not so much about anger as about the mercy of God. The prophet Hosea is the prophet of mercy. He will say so in the sixth chapter: “Therefore I struck through the prophets and beat them with the words of my mouth, and my judgment was like a rising light. For I want mercy, not sacrifice, and the knowledge of God to the people, rather than burnt offerings. ” Hosea says that even if the Lord is very stern towards his people and if He beats him with the mouths of his prophets, he does this not to enjoy revenge, but to remind of mercy. Hosea argues that mercy rather speaks of God than anger.
Anger is the wrong word about God. And mercy in relation to Him, according to the prophet Hosea, is a more appropriate word. It is akin to the knowledge of God, that is, the knowledge of God. He who truly knows God, and not just offers him burnt offerings and sacrifices, knows that the Lord is not so much angry as merciful.And the Lord in the Gospel will repeat this phrase: “I want mercy, not sacrifice.” Although at the same time he believes that "your piety is like the morning mist and like dew, soon disappearing."
The Prophet Hosea was a very interesting man. He lived in the time of the wicked King Hosea. By the will of God, he married a harlot known in those places. And he begot children by her. He called the son of Israel, which meant "I will demand blood," in the sense that the Lord of Israel will seek the money from the house of Israel. Or a different interpretation of the name: "I will put an end to the kingdom of the house of Israel." This is a significant symbolic image. Hosea not only married a harlot, but also children born in this strange marriage, he called the names by which God refers to his people. (24:36)
And he did it, pursuing two goals. A marriage with a harlot symbolized two ideas: the first is revealed in the second chapter: “Speak to your brothers,” the Lord appeals to the Israelites through Hosea, “My people,” and to your sisters, “Pardoned.” Sue your mother, sue; for she is not my wife, and I am not her husband; let her remove fornication from her face and adultery from her breasts, so that I will not expose her to the dragon and not expose her, as on her birthday, not to make her desolate, not to turn her into the dry land and not to kill her with thirst. And I will not have mercy on her children, because they are children of fornication.For their mother had committed perniciousness, and she who had conceived them shame herself; for she said: "I will go after my lovers, who give me bread and water, wool and linen, firs and drinks." Behold, I will block her way with thorns and enclose her with a hedge, and she will not find her paths, and chase after her lovers, but will not overtake them; and he will look for them, but he will not find them, and he will say: “I will go and return to my first husband; for then it was better for me than now. " And she did not know that I, I gave her bread and wine and oil, and multiplied in her the silver and gold from which they made the idol of Baal. "
Here the following thought is interesting: any person on earth who sins, rejects God, acts or thinks not according to the will of God, he still feeds, breathes what the Lord gives. He lives in a world that God created for him and uses what the Lord gave him, but does not understand it. “For that I will take back my bread in his time and my wine in his time, and will take away my wool and my flax, with which its nakedness is covered. And now I will reveal her disgrace in the eyes of her lovers, and no one will take it out of My hand. And I will stop all her joy, her feasts, and her new moons, and her sabbaths, and all her celebrations.And I will devastate her vines and her fig tree, of which she says: “I have gifts that my lovers have given me”; and I will turn them into a forest, and the wild beasts will eat them. (27:28) And I will punish her for the days of the service of Baal, when she censed in him, and adorning herself with earrings and necklaces, went after her lovers, and forgot Me, says the Lord. ”
Despite the general prophetic line, even in Hosea the reproof and expression of the wrath of the Lord are not at all the same as in Amos. This is not a threat, but a call to repentance. Let's see what Hosea gives us. We talked about pagan religious systems with marriages of gods. They said that in Israel there was a unique situation, because here the marriage was vertical. God was engaged to Israel and no one else. There is no one in heaven but God. And therefore, there is no one on earth for God at this moment except the Israelites. This is the only marriage line: the soul of Israel marries God. But this marriage itself was presented in different ways.
Imagine what the Lord says: when you were young and beautiful, I saw you, loved you for your beauty, for your purity and virginity, and took you to Myself.But the time came, and you changed your love, and went from me after your lovers. Lovers are gods of other religions. But in a spiritual sense, we can understand other ideological concepts. For example, there is a god of the womb, a god of gold, and so on. So you, Israel, went after your lovers.
Such an option is characteristic of the prophet Jeremiah: when I walked (the Lord always passes by. The word "Easter" means "passing by"), when I passed by you, you lay on the road tormented, wounded. (depicted as if raped girl. Or raped harlot). You lay wounded, tortured, miserable, miserable. And I saw you like this, Israel, wounded, miserable, took you to your house and healed, and sated you, and delivered you from this prodigal life and brought you into marriage. But you forgot it all and again returned to your adultery.
Thus, in the prophecies two variants of the marriage line are depicted - this is either the bride, who later entered into fornication, or the harlot, who after a while returned to her occupation. The root cause of the sinful state seems to be spiritual fornication. That is, the prophet Hosea, like some others, is not so much interested in concrete people's sins as this question. This is the root of all troubles. Everything else can be fixed.But this must be healed above all else, because spiritual fornication is a serious spiritual danger. (31:49)
And here Hosea brings the harlot into her house for two purposes. First, in order to denounce Israel through the image of their children (in this case, it turns out that the Israelis are called the children of fornication or the children of marriage, which have become misguided). Fornication and wandering mean delusion. The Israelites are the children of fornication. Secondly, to show that the harlot can also become a godly woman in marriage. If this is possible with a harlot, then it is possible with Israel. Israel can return to God. (32:58) Hosea submits his personal life to the service of the Lord.
From different sides, both Hosea and Amos show us the Old Testament concept of God in prophetic reflection. The prophet Amos, knowing that the majority would not believe in his prophecy, still turned out to be a visionary of the future. He predicted the future assimilation of the Northern Kingdom.
Why do we speak of Jerusalem as the whole world? We say this because the Lord is there. There was a temple where the Lord dwelled, accommodating more than peace. Here is the center of the world.In principle, in a small area of Israel - the quintessence of the whole world.
From the moment he realized that he was a prophet, the prophet obeyed the voice of God, but to marry a harlot in pre-Christian times was a sign of shame. A simple man could not afford it. And the prophet was forgivable. Everyone looked at him differently. For the prophet, this was a very serious sign.
For the sake of Christ, the fools are in some sense the successors of the prophet. In our time, such an image of prophetic action would not have had such an action and would not have attracted such attention to itself. Nowadays sectarians act like that. Or false prophets. Now we need more civilized forms of prophecy. Perhaps because we have become more civilized, but maybe because, despite the crisis, now is not an apocalyptic time. The time on the eve of the twentieth century was much more apocalyptic than it is now.
I am not setting you up for the end. Premonition of the end rather could arise before the collapse of the Soviet Union. On the contrary, we need to ask the Lord for strength. Ecclesiastes says: there is a time to scatter stones, there is a time to collect. Another time will come to scatter.While you need to collect. (38:50) Of course, at any moment, everything can be broken by any person and by the people as a whole. But this does not mean that we have to wait for this to happen. The fact is that the end of the earthly history, the coming of the Kingdom of God from a historical perspective, is a tragic event, and then a joyful event.
That is, the cross and the resurrection, of course, - this is martyrdom, and then victory with the help of God. But the fact is that this is not a one-day act, it is a gradual process. And we do not know what the phase of this process. We know that the Kingdom of God with our endeavor can enter into us now, already in this life.
In a sense, the second coming comes for a person already in his earthly life. Do not wait for him to come back. But we should not confuse our personal, the path of the deification of man with the general historical processes, in which we are only a small part. We cannot influence history, but we need to learn to cope with ourselves, and then create something around ourselves. Knowing that the efficiency of this if there is three percent is good. And that, maybe, and that will not be, and will be only for itself. (40:30)
Today we should remember the words of the prophets more about the remnant of Israel.If the remnant is alive, waves of faith and hope can diverge from it to other people. And thanks to this, they can, without experiencing faith, like other believers, act positively in their lives.
Let's turn to statistics. How many baptized people are there in the country? Let ninety percent. Although, rather, about seventy. Because we have a lot of Muslims. In all, seventy percent of baptized people. How many of these baptized people are believers? I do not speak about those who attend the temple. I say - how many of them are believers? Let forty percent. Forty percent of believers. How many of these believers go to the temple? Just going to the temple. For example, at Easter, Baptism or at Christmas. Suppose thirty percent. And the last question, which for an Orthodox person characterizes his ecclesiastical character: how many of these people regularly (at least once a month or two) take communion? (42:55) I read that statistics are very disappointing - three percent somewhere. And even one percent. But this is not a reason for gloom.
This phenomenon is familiar. Because the Lord in the Gospel says: when I come, will I find at least one faithful? Let one percent take communion, let ten percent go to the temple, let thirty percent be believers, let seventy be baptized.But if sincerity is everywhere, the number of people positively operating in this world will gradually increase. After all, the fact is that the sacrament, baptism, going to the temple makes our life positive not from these walkings, but from the gift of God. As a person tries to do something with his own weak forces, the grace of God is given to him beyond measure, and it gradually stabilizes life. (44:26)
By the way, there were a number of private theological opinions that our world would enter the kingdom of God without a catastrophe and antichrist. Perhaps this process will occur without global trouble and the last retreat. Perhaps gradually people will realize that it is better for them to build life the way the Lord wants. And for this He gives them the Kingdom of God. However, the apostles (both Paul and John) in the Apocalypse speak precisely about the dramatic course of history. And it would be strange for us to think that this will not happen. After all, this has already happened many times in history, and we are not immune from the fact that everything can repeat at a new level in the new century.
But it seems to me that the matter is different. It seems to me that, starting from the fall, a man, during the most important periods of his history, chose the worst, dramatic mode of behavior. In Paradise, Adam could taste the fruit, but he could repent later. And then his falling away would be partial.But he went to the end. Until the complete rejection of God. Christ could be hated, banished, but could not kill. By the way, in Isaac Sirin it is written that the act of the incarnation of God and His coming to us is not directly connected with our fall into sin. He believes that God would still be embodied and come to man. (47:08) Because the incarnation of God is an act of the love of God. Another thing is that when He came to the man, He crucified for him. That is what St. Isaac wants to emphasize? That God comes to man not out of necessity, not because of our sins. God goes to man anyway. And due to the fact that a person behaves this way, the coming of the Lord turns into a crucifix, not a holiday. It began not two thousand years ago, but also in paradise, more precisely, with the loss of paradise. There was a crucifix, and then the Resurrection. I think that every true Christian, and maybe all of humanity as a whole, to some extent necessarily goes through a crucifixion in order to receive a resurrection. Although this crucifix is not,may be,of the terrible despair of suffering that Christ had when He passed voluntarily. (48:25).
When we read that the saints experienced something similar to the torments of Christ, we can assume that they experienced the same in essence, but to a lesser extent. Saints could suffer voluntarily because of love for Christ.But this is not mandatory for us. John Chrysostom at Easter says: "Death! Where is your sting? Hell! Where is your victory?" Both hell and death are already conquered. In some deep plan, Christ has already done everything. He has already paved the way to heaven. To join Christ, each person has to go through his measure of the cross and his measure of resurrection. For everyone, this path is built in accordance with their individuality, with their relationship with God.
In general, it seems to me that the whole human history cannot pass by Christ. We would like it to end just fine, but these are our dreams. I wish there were no wars, let's say. But we live in a world where every minute blood is shed and war is waged inside a person.
A typical example: Leo Tolstoy said that the era of the spirit, the era of freedom. In this age everyone will be happy. There will be no more violence, there will be peace. As a result, the opposite happened. In the Scripture, by the way, it says that the most trouble will be when they talk about peace and security. The devil laughs at our dreams for good. Berdyaev, criticizing the materialists, also says that people pretend that there is no death.
If we summarize the patristic experience as to how to live, we can say that we must live as if every moment was the last. We must live as the ancients said: to remember death, to remember that every minute may be the end. But this should not cause hysteria. People should feel that everything is in the hands of God, and you yourself are in the hands of God. This is on the one hand. But on the other hand, the Lord gives you strength and blessing to create. However, it is not necessary to act and create as if everything will collapse tomorrow. Not hastily and rashly, but as if you had a thousand years ahead.
Answers on questions
- In the book “Interpretation on the Four Gangs,” edited by M. Barsov, a comment is given, where there is a compilation of the sayings of the holy fathers. There is also a collection of statements by local priests who answer certain questions in Christian magazines. Barsov is good because he is walking the Gospel, he has a Gospel story agreed. Where it does not agree, there are attempts to harmonize it. Well, for example, where is Thursday, where is Friday, where are two witnesses, where is one.
St. John Chrysostom interpreted the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of John and a number of messages from the apostles.
For learning, however, the compact interpretation of the blissful Theophylact of Bulgaria for all the Four Gospels is most suitable. He took both books of tokens of John Chrysostom on the Gospel of John and Matthew, added more interpretations on the Gospel of Luke and Mark, all of which were largely reduced and published.
And with regard to the interpretations of the Epistle of the Apostle Paul, Theophan the Recluse is particularly interesting.
There is a curious interpretation of the New Testament by the English theologian William Barkley. This is a multi-volume interpretation of the Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke. The interpretation is interesting not so much from a spiritual point of view, but in relation to a philological one. Every word is meticulously understood. What did it mean in Greek, what meanings and shades of meanings did the word have, what shades can be applied here? Very useful work. He has a good interpretation of the Apocalypse. (55:42)
There is a book by Galbiati E. Piazza “Difficult Pages of the Bible. Old Testament". There is no systematic interpretation. Understand some points, expressed interesting hypotheses. For example, as regards the picture of the creation of the world. If you paid attention, the very description of this process within six days is described differently, as it is presented in different hypotheses.A completely original hypothesis is being advanced that this is connected with the peculiarities of the ancient techniques of Palestinian, Sumerian and other sacred books. The creation of the world is brokeninto eight fragments, six paintings are divided into eight. Parallel places are put, as if this writer speaks in principle about the same thing, only the first time speaks briefly, and the second time reveals the meaning of this. GalbiatiPiazza hoto say that all these days is one process. This author certainly has interesting hypotheses. (57:51) At the same time, a purely Catholic doctrine is traced in the book. The author says that the purpose of saving a person is to return Adam to the paradise from which he was expelled. This is a typical Catholic doctrine that equalizes the kingdom of heaven with the primeval paradise — when a person returns to heaven, the Lord will return supernatural grace to him. This is all repeated in Catholic work.
- As I understand it, the main principle that Bishop Cassian professed was to not violate the more ancient lists of sources. I will give an example - the famous words from the Gospel. They are repeated. "Your father who sees in secret will reward you openly."We read this in a synodal translation. And he says no, initially it was not. "And the Father who sees in secret will repay you." Everything. The word "clearly" is not added. It seems to me that in the spiritual sense it is more intense, because some people are confused by the word “clearly” when reading this place. What does it have to do with it? Who said that clearly? This is the Old Testament. Maybe, obviously, externally, and maybe internally. (1:01:17)
Biblical criticism should be very careful. It concerns not only the Old Testament, but also the New Testament. We must treat this very carefully.
In all studies there is one serious danger, it is described in the ancient some kind of life. Once there lived a certain ascetic who did not want to listen to the hegumen. He said: they say that the words of the abbot of our monastery are for me? He does not decree to me. Now, if these words said Basil the Great or John Chrysostom - is another matter. After a while, he began to say: what are they to me, now if the apostle Paul had said. And then he went on: what is the apostle Paul? In the end, came to the rejection of Christ. So it is here. In critical analysis you always need to know the measure. Sometimes there is a temptation to bring one or another gospel law under one's own hypothesis and pass it off as truth. But in reality this is just a hypothesis. (1:04:46)
All our scientific methods are largely lame. A simple example is the Shroud of Turin. The method of radiocarbon analysis should have determined its age. And initially, scientists who were skeptical (it was in our Soviet literature in the late 70s - early 80s was consecrated), came to the conclusion that according to the analysis, the age of the Shroud is the XII century after the Nativity of Christ. After a while, publications appeared in which scientists began to talk about this method and it turned out that because of the inaccuracy in the micron fraction, one could be mistaken for several centuries at the output of the formula. There were believers who said that the Resurrection of Christ is a supernatural act, and not an intra-historical fact. Resurrection is still a miracle. The miracle that actually took place and could have been accompanied by such a physical effect that the formula of radiocarbon analysis would turn into nothing. It may not even be applicable to this occasion. (1:06:30)
And indeed, there could be inexplicable phenomena. We can perceive it in a spiritual sense, and we can perceive it in the physical. Why did the Lord Mary say: “Do not touch Me, for I have not yet ascended to My Father”, butnot yet entering the Father, said to Thomas: "... touch my hand to my side"? Some scholars do not exclude that the resurrection of Jesus’s body could have changed gradually, andoftentie itwith radiation.
By the way, there is a stable Western hypothesis that the creation of man (and this does not cancel the Divine Act) was accompanied to a large extent by radiation phenomena. In particular, it is interpreted as a fiery sword, which was a cherub, forbidding return to paradise. Interestingly, in some old icons this fiery sword is depicted exactly as a sheaf of fire emanating from the handle. Something fiery and scary. Maybe this is just an image, and maybe it was really accompanied by some physical phenomena.
If this is true (because it is not clear what kind of imprint it has remained on the Shroud), then it would be absurd to apply to it a formula that describes ordinary states, not to mention the inaccuracy of the method itself. There are many such phenomena that can largely overgrown with legends or speculation. But maybe there are some facts.Once I read that, it turns out, there was a legend that after someone disturbed the grave of Tamerlane, a terrible war would begin. And, despite the protests of local residents, June 21, 1941 opened the grave of Tamerlane. This is a historical fact. And how to treat it is another question.