Interesting facts about the double-headed eagle
The double-headed eagle is depicted on the emblem of Russia and several European states. This is one of the most common symbols in heraldry, but it still remains a mystery.
1. The Sumerian symbol of the double-headed eagle had a religious meaning. He was a solar symbol. One of the earliest images of the double-headed eagle was found during excavations of the Sumerian city of Lagash in Mesopotamia.
2. A widespread symbol of a double-headed eagle was among the Hittites. Its oldest image (XIII century BC) was found during the excavations of Hattusi (modern Bogazkoy) - the capital of the Hittite kingdom. The double-headed eagle, holding in its paws two hares, was depicted on cylindrical seals. Archaeologists also found images of the two-headed horde in Hittite buildings.
3. The double-headed eagle is in Hinduism. There he bears the name Gandaberund (“ganda” - strong, “berunda” - two-headed). In the Hindu text "Vishnu Purana" it was said that the god Vishnu turned into Gandberundu when he needed fantastic power.
4. Images of the double-headed eagle of the 6th century BC. erwere met in the Medes, east of the former Hittite kingdom. Images of the double-headed eagle were found both in ancient Egypt and on Assyrian monuments, where, according to experts, they symbolized the union of the Median kingdom with the Assyrian in the VII-VI centuries. BC er
5. The image of a double-headed eagle was depicted on their battle flags by the Seljuk Turks. The eagle was depicted above the gates in the citadel of the capital of the Seljuks of Konya, on the coins of some Turkic dynasties, and was simply mass replicated in the visual arts.
6. In the Golden Horde, the double-headed eagle met on coins from the end of the 13th to the second half of the 14th century. The earliest are the double-headed eagles on the copper fololls of the Sakchi mint (Danube region) with the image of the Nogai beklyarubeka tamga (1235-1300).
7. The double-headed eagle was also present on Tver coins of the XV century.
8. For the first time, the two-headed eagle appeared as a heraldic symbol of Russia (then the Great Moscow Principality) in 1497 under John III. Then the eagle decorated the Great State Seal.
9. In alchemy, the double-headed eagle is a symbol of transformation.
10. Historians have information that the double-headed eagle was on the banners of the Huns in the IV-V centuries.
eleven.The double-headed eagle is the emblem of the Masonic lodges of the Scottish ritual. Masons interpret it as a symbol of unity of the masculine and feminine.
12. Images of the double-headed eagle are found in the paintings of Eastern European wooden synagogues of the XVII – XVIII centuries (for example, in the Hador synagogue in Galicia). “Heads turned in different directions mean two qualities of the Creator, with the help of which he controls the universe: Judgment and Mercy, Severity and Love.”
13. Byzantium, contrary to popular error, never used the double-headed eagle on the state and emperor seals.
14. Images of the double-headed eagle are ornaments of Indian tribes of North America.
15. In Kabbalah, the double-headed eagle is closely related to the notion of tikkun. So Kabbalists called the correction of the world, which lost its harmony as a result of the Shvirat Kelim - a cosmic catastrophe, when evil was formed in the world. The result of this correction should be the New Adam Kadmon (Initial, spiritual man).
16. In Byzantium, presumably, the double-headed eagle was introduced by the emperor Isaac Comnin under the influence of legends about hag, common in his native Paflagoniya.These legends depict the image of the hagi as a giant eagle with two heads, which was so powerful that it could carry the whole bull in its claws.
17. The double-headed eagles “flew in” with the Crusaders to Europe. From the XIII century they appear in the coats of arms of the Counts of Savoy and Würzburg, on Bavarian coins, on coins of the King of Sicily, they are known in the heraldry of the knights of Holland and the Balkan countries, and then the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II.
18. In the XIII century, the double-headed eagle becomes the emblem of Serbia, later also Montenegro, Albania, it was used in the Chernigov and Tver princedoms.
19. As a permanent emblem of the emperor, the image of the two-headed eagle was established only in the 15th century, under Emperor Sigismund I and Frederick III of Habsburg.
20. Two-headed eagles before 1935 crowned four towers of the Moscow Kremlin (Spasskaya, Borovitskaya, Troitskaya, Nikolskaya), until 1918 - the Syuyumbike tower in Kazan.
21. Double-headed eagles were depicted on the icons of the Virgin - on the Azov (XVIII century), “Autocratic” and on the icon “Yako Orlya Krylya” (the last two - the end of the XIX century).
22. According to some European historians, the “two-headedness” of an eagle may be associated with Zoroastrian cults.When an eagle was sacrificed, it was divided into two parts.
23. The symbolism of the double-headed eagle is widespread in Sufism.
24. Unchanged since Hittite times, the eagle was crowned with one, two or three crowns — the main royal attribute.
25. At the beginning of the 15th century, a black double-headed eagle appeared on the coat of arms of the “Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation”, in 1806 it was inherited by the Austrian (from 1867 - Austro-Hungarian) empire. 26. The Russian double-headed eagle, like the Palaeologov and the Habsburg, was depicted with open paws, then holding a cross, sword, or power. Since the 17th century, a new image has been affirmed - with a power and scepter.
27. At the Borovitskaya Tower of the Kremlin there is an ornament with a double-headed eagle. Estimated time of its creation - 1490s.
28. The two-headed sovereign eagle of Russia was returned to the Russian coat of arms on November 30, 1993 by a decree of Russian President Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin.
29. The emblem of the fictional state of the Imperium of mankind in the game “Warhammer 40,000” is a two-headed eagle.
30. In the last episode of the third season of Dr. House, hero Hugh Laurie appears in a T-shirt with a heraldic double-headed eagle.