How to recognize allergies?
What is allergy
By this term is meant critically increased sensitivity of the immune system to various stimuli when they are re-exposed to the body.
That is, an allergic reaction in an infant or an adult occurs, provided that the allergen contacts the person again and the body has already developed a protective response.
Allergy belongs to a larger class of reactions - to hypersensitivity. However, allergic reactions include only the pathological response of the immune system, triggered by immunoglobulin E, including antibodies E, IgE.
But in modern medicine, many doctors combine these 2 pathologies, so any type of hypersensitivity leads to the response of the organism or to an allergic reaction, the treatment of which should be started immediately.
The first mention of allergy appeared in the writings of ancient Greece. Then there was an atypical reaction of some people to milk.
This is not surprising, because to this day many people do not tolerate the proteins contained in this product.
Therefore, doctors even introduced a restriction on prikorma.According to him, whole milk can be introduced into the diet of children who have already turned 3 years old and not earlier.
Today, allergies are one of the most common, unpredictable and dangerous diseases.
Every year the number of people suffering from this pathology is dynamically increasing.But the most dangerous is the fact that the doctors did not reveal the exact reason for the development of this unpleasant illness.
However, the following factors can cause an atypical immune response to a stimulus:
Quite often, children suffer from reactions that were diagnosed in their parents. So, allergies to antibiotics, milk or pet hair are often transmitted.
In regions with high environmental pollution, a much larger number of people suffering from allergies.
Lack of regular dust removal.
Those who rarely do the cleaning in the room where they live are more likely to develop various reactions. For example, dust or wool.
This theory was advanced by David Strachen and modern doctors confirm it.It is noteworthy that allergy is more common in developed countries, while in third world countries it is rare. This is due to the fact that children are too often washed, not allowing the body to develop a normal response to various antigens. Excessive custody is also dangerous. For example, due to overheating, children often develop a reaction to the cold.
Consumption of preservatives and chemicals.
This is another significant factor provocateur allergies.
As you can see, no one is immune from the onset of an allergic reaction, so it is important to monitor your body and if symptoms appear to be hypersensitive to any products, you should contact your doctor to begin the correct treatment.
Classification of allergic reactions
In modern medicine have already managed to allocate a lot of varieties of hypersensitivity. Therefore, doctors use a rather complicated classification when making a diagnosis.
After all, the most important thing is to accurately identify the nature of the immune response in order to start treatment promptly and prevent the development of dangerous states in the future.
The first classification of hypersensitivity was proposed by Dr. Cook in 1947.
He identified 2 large groups of immune responses:
It appears within 15 to 30 minutes after contact. This response is provoked by B-lymphocytes. Usually she has acute manifestations and treatment should be carried out immediately.
Slow motion type.
The reaction begins to appear 6 to 8 hours after contact with the allergen. This response is triggered by a response of the immune system at the cellular level.
However, today there is an extended classification of allergies, which was proposed by Dr. Jel and Coombs.
According to their opinion, there are 4 types of reactions:
This is an immediate type reaction. These include: anaphylactic shock, urticaria, pollinosis, atopic bronchial asthma, the development of allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. These are food, seasonal and other types of reactions. Such an answer can strike anyone: a baby, teenager or adult.
Usually, these pathologies are due to exposure to drugs. Their types are distinguished: immune leukopenia, immune thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia. Such conditions require that treatment be carried out urgently.
Damage to the body is caused by the work of the immune complex. Among the diseases provoked by this immune response, it is worth highlighting: serum sickness, the development of exogenous allergic alveolitis, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. These pathologies are extremely dangerous and, if the correct treatment is started late, can lead to serious complications and even to the death of the patient.
This type includes contact dermatitis, infectious-allergic bronchial asthma and rhinitis.
Also, many doctors distinguish the fifth type of reaction - the responses caused by autosensitization. These include hyperactivity of the thyroid gland, developing on the background of Graves' disease.
It should be understood that the immune response to the stimulus is not taken from nowhere.
Doctors distinguish 3 stages of reaction development:
This is the primary contact with the allergen, after which the immune system produces antibodies or lymphocytes that can interact with this irritant.
This stage develops upon repeated contact. In the body begin complex biochemical reactions,accompanied by the production of histamine and other mediators, which leads to damage to the cells of the body.
This is a period of active symptoms.
Consider that if you are allergic, treatment should begin immediately. However, it is worth remembering that regardless of what the reaction to — cold, milk, pollen, etc. — appeared, it is important to immediately eliminate the allergen.
Symptoms of hypersensitivity
Of course, allergy symptoms in adults and in children have some differences. However, in most cases, the types of reactions depend on the region of manifestations and the nature of the stimulus.
So, the symptoms can be divided into 2 large groups:
- local or local;
- general or systemic.
Each type of allergy can manifest itself as a simple rash, and more complex reactions: anaphylaxis, Kounis syndrome, etc.
Doctors distinguish the following local signs of allergy, depending on the area of damage:
From the nose.
This is allergic rhinitis. Typically, a reaction to pollen or cat allergy has symptoms of this kind — swelling of the nasal mucosa and heavy discharge from it.
From the side of the eyes.
The organs of vision are inflamed, clearly marked redness, discomfort. This reaction is called allergic conjunctivitis.
From the upper respiratory tract.
The patient has a spasm in the bronchi, it is difficult for him to breathe, a characteristic whistling, shortness of breath, asthma develops.
From the ears.
There is a hearing loss, ears laid. This is due to swelling of the Eustachian tube.
From the dermis.
The patient has a rash, eczema, dermatitis, etc. Moreover, the nature of the reaction can be determined by the localization of skin manifestations. So, if you have food allergies, symptoms of the dermis in the form of rashes will be located on the crook of the elbows on two hands at once, in the abdomen and in the groin.
From the side of the head.
Frequent migraines can be a sign of allergies.
From the oral cavity.
Often a sign of allergies is the appearance of aphthous stomatitis.
Also, various foods (milk, nuts, honey, etc.), dust and pollen, medicines or atmospheric phenomena (cold, heat, etc.) can trigger a systemic response. AT
such reactions include:
This is a complex response, accompanied by angioedema, rash, hypotension, swelling of the body - all of which can lead to coma and death.Anaphylaxis requires that treatment be carried out on an emergency basis.
This is one of the easiest manifestations of the pollen reaction. Usually, this condition is accompanied by a complex of symptoms on the part of the bronchi, nose and eyes, but an increase in temperature is possible.
It has the same symptoms as in hay fever. But it is complemented by skin manifestations.
This is an acute disease affecting the cardio-coronary system. It is usually triggered by allergies.
Allergic manifestations of the gastrointestinal tract.
This is diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, increased fatigue syndrome, etc. Often, this reaction is complemented by rashes, which helps push the immune nature of the disease. Such an allergy can manifest itself in infants and adults.
As you can see, the symptoms of an immune response to an irritant can easily be confused with bronchitis, a cold or poisoning, so it is important to pay attention to such features:
- Seasonality. Allergies often make themselves felt in the warm season.
- Lack of heat.
- Situationalism. So, rashes appear strictly after contact with something or the use of certain products.
- Standard treatment does not help and often the illness disappears on its own.
- Rash appears chaotically.For example, with most infectious diseases, rashes spread from top to bottom.
It does not matter if there is a reaction in an adult or in an infant, you should immediately contact a doctor. Only timely detection of an allergen can relieve of dangerous manifestations and prevent the development of more severe manifestations.
The most common types of reactions
Regardless of age, and the atypical immune response can reach both infants and the elderly.
These are the most common types of allergies:
- pollen reaction;
- allergic to animal fur;
- reaction to cold;
- drug allergies.
Each type has its own symptoms and features.
So, if a patient suffers from food allergies, then the manifestations depend on his age and state of health.
For infants, this reaction is especially dangerous, since the intestinal flora has not yet been formed, which leaves the body unprotected.
Usually this type of reaction in infants has the following manifestations:
- Diathesis. This redness, rash and peeling of the skin on the cheeks and chin of the baby.
- Urticaria, dermatitis and other rashes.
- The systematic appearance of heat sink and diaper rash with regular hygiene.
- Aggravation of colic.
- Frequent regurgitation in infants may also indicate allergies.
- Disorders of the chair. The baby suffers from constipation and diarrhea. In this case, the feces are frothy, with an admixture of uncooked food. Note that in infants such a chair can also be caused by poisoning.
- Increased gas formation.
In infants, food allergies can result in anaphylactic shock, bronchospasm and death.
You should closely monitor the diet of the baby and their nutrition: no dangerous products, such as chocolate, citrus, etc.
Also, the crumbs often have a reaction to the mother's milk. This requires an urgent review of the diet and the purchase of lactose-free mixtures.
Among the potential food allergens are the following:
- whole cow milk;
- strawberry and raspberry;
- mother's breast milk;
- honey and bee products.
The reaction can occur on any group of products, just milk, honey and all the ingredients listed above, it is more than likely. No less common is the atypical response to pollen.
Among its symptoms worth noting:
- rhinitis and conjunctivitis;
- itching of the face, nose, throat, tongue and organs of vision;
- hard breath;
- bouts of coughing;
- rash (not always).
This reaction is seasonal and often lasts only during the flowering period of the allergen. In this case, the treatment consists not only of taking antihistamines, but also at home. This reduces symptoms as the effect of the allergen is reduced.
Allergies to animals, and more specifically, to the products of their vital activity, which are found on wool, have the same symptoms as the reaction to pollen. Only signs often occur rapidly when the allergen is injected into the dermis or into the room.
Many rarely notice the reaction to the cold, writing off its symptoms for a banal cold. In vain, because despite the ease of symptoms, it often delivers a lot of discomfort.
You can understand that you are allergic to cold because of the following symptoms:
In this case, rhinitis appears when you go out in the cold in winter or autumn-spring period. Once in the room, patients note that the symptoms subside. This is the most visible sign of a cold allergy.
Peeling of the skin, itching.
These signs are marked on the face and hands - on the areas of the dermis that are not protected by clothing. Indeed, in places where the cold does not bother the skin, the cells are not damaged.
Often areas of the dermis, which are systematically affected by the cold, covered with rashes. It is noteworthy that these symptoms disappear during hospital or vacation, when the effect of low temperatures is eliminated.
One of the most dangerous types of allergies is the reaction of the immune system to drugs. At the same time there is a huge risk of rapid development of anaphylactic shock, because the active agent enters the bloodstream, which leads to an immediate reaction.
Among the other symptoms worth highlighting:
- peeling and cracking of the skin, usually such a symptom appears on the fingers, palms and feet;
- swelling of the body;
- breathing heaviness;
- symptoms of general intoxication;
- Quincke swelling.
If medical care was not provided in a timely manner, the risk of death is high.
The main method of eliminating an atypical immune response is the identification of an allergen. Diagnosis plays a crucial role in therapy.
Further treatment includes:
Elimination of the allergen.
So, if you are allergic to milk, then you should exclude this product from the diet.
The patient is administered specific antigens.
Acceptance of antihistamine drugs.
They relieve symptoms, but do not eliminate the cause of the pathology. Therefore, their action has a limited period. These drugs are used only in combination with isolation from the allergen and other therapy.
- Perhaps the introduction of specific antiallergic immunoglobulin.
Local symptomatic treatment.
These are various lotions of herbs, antibacterial ointments, etc. This is necessary for the prevention of the development of secondary infection.
As you can see, allergy treatment is a complex process that does not give a guarantee for getting rid of an illness. The main principle in the fight against the atypical reaction of immunity to the stimulus is the elimination of the provocateur factor.
However, modern physicians are constantly working to create an effective therapy for allergies and it is quite possible, tomorrow you can forget about this problem!