Facts About Planet Earth
Volcanic mountain ranges gird the Earth
Mid-ocean ridges are a huge system of volcanoes, formed as a result of eruptions of basaltic lava between the tectonic plates of the Earth. Such eruptions created the “youngest” crust in the lithosphere. The mid-oceanic ridge (60 thousand km) actually encircles the planet and causes some interesting natural phenomena. For example, when icy ocean water seeps into the cracks of volcanic rock, it heats up to almost 400 degrees and flies gray-black fountains into the air, which are called “black smokers”. By the way, the main volcanic activity of the planet goes along this ridge.
Fire loves cold, ice and frost
Strong winds and dryness of Antarctica cause fast-moving fires. A fire in Antarctica put out is problematic, because the water instantly freezes. The stations are far from each other, and they have to wait a long time for help, because people pay a lot of attention to fire safety. The reason is static electricity.Low humidity and strong winds lead to its occurrence, and only one static spark can ignite fuel vapors and cause a fire. In addition, in Antarctica, there is also Mount Erebus, an ice-covered active volcano with a huge lake of red-hot lava, ready to erupt at any moment.
Earthquakes are not uncommon
Earthquakes on Earth occur about 500 thousand times a year, people feel only one fifth of them. Insignificant and imperceptible earthquakes occur up to 8 thousand times a day. Earthquakes that can be felt happen 55 thousand times a year. Medium and strong earthquakes (5.0-8.9 points) lead to destruction (about a thousand times a year). The most powerful earthquakes are rare, they occur once in 20 years (9.0-9.9 according to Richter). The earthquake of this scale in 1556 in China killed more than 800 thousand inhabitants. An earthquake above 10 points to this day has never been recorded.
The core of the earth is as hot as the sun
Earth has three layers. The hot core is molten outside, but it is dense in the center. The next layer is a mantle consisting of solid rocks (84% of the Earth’s volume).The topmost layer is a very thin bark, where there is life. The kernel is the most inaccessible and poorly understood; the thickness of the outer core is 2300 km, the temperature is more than 3900 degrees Celsius, it contains mainly iron and nickel. The inner core is a ball with a thickness of 1207 km, which is an alloy of iron. This ball supports the protective magnetic field of the planet, and its temperature - 6100 degrees Celsius, which is comparable with the temperature of the Sun.
Large weight can lead to deformation of the Earth’s surface
In 2002, the giant Larsen B Antarctic ice shelf collapsed in the Weddell Sea. Its area was about 3250 square meters. km, thickness - 220 m, and weight - 720 billion tons. Too much weight to disappear so suddenly. The shift was powerful enough to bring about changes in underground mountain and lava flows, as well as “disturb” nearby volcanoes. If the entire ice of Antarctica melts, the ocean level will rise by 60 m. By the way, the surface of Atlantis is pinned down by thick ice sheets, and they are so heavy that most of the land on the continent is currently below sea level.
About 95% of the ocean is still unexplored
Although water covers 71% of the Earth’s surface, we investigated no more than 5%. Sunlight penetrates only 275 m, while the rest of the dark abyss remains unexplored. There are millions of species of wildlife in it, but many of them can become extinct before we get to them, because the acidity of the ocean has increased by 30%, and this destroys coral reefs and destroys some species of life. And still the mankind annually dumps 180 million tons of toxic waste into the world ocean. The Mariana Trench near Guam is the deepest part of the ocean (10,900 m). Just imagine how many discoveries are still ahead.
Gravity level - variable value
Think gravity is the same everywhere? The answer is incorrect. For example, in Hudson Bay (Canada), the weakest level of gravity on Earth. The difference is insignificant and imperceptible, but modern technologies fix it. The most common theory leads to the era of the Ice Age. When the ice sheet melted, it affected the gravitational field, albeit to a small extent. This ice cover occupied most of Canada and part of North America. The same thing happened and happens at the South Pole.Melting ice in recent years has caused there obvious changes in gravity.
North and South Poles are swapped
This exchange of places is a natural cycle. This happened countless times in the past, and it will happen in the future. Volcanic rocks indicate that in the past the exchange of places took place 780 thousand years ago. Magnetic activity around our planet shows that this cycle will soon begin again. The magnetic field around the Earth protects us from radiation, but it changes faster than predicted, weakening in some areas and increasing in others. The field depends on the movement of the external core of the Earth: a weak movement causes a weakening of the magnetic field, a fast movement increases it. The current activity may mean that the process is currently running, but it will end only after hundreds of thousands of years.
Earth, in fact, very tiny
Earth is smaller than the Sun, and it is strikingly smaller. 109 Earths can be placed on the surface of the Sun, but approximately 13 million of our planets will be located inside it, given the net volume without empty space. Even if only spherical shape is taken into account, then 960 thousand Earths will fit inside the Sun.In addition, the sun is 333 thousand times heavier than the Earth. Now imagine the star Betelgeuse, which is 500 times larger than the sun.