What is a "synecdoche"? Examples of using it in speech
The Russian language has a wide range of expressive means. One of them is a synecdoche. Examples of its use are found in Russian literature quite often.
For example, sometimes a single number is used in a speech instead of a plural.
Everything seemed to die in silence -
Trees, birds, reeds,
The eagle owl, the boar ...
Then - the thunder hit the drum !!!
Sometimes the use of the pluralInstead of the only one, he tells us that the synecdoch path is used here. Examples of such a transfer of meaning on the basis of a quantitative relationship from one object or phenomenon to another are also often found in fiction or poetry.
Yuntsy think themselves unlikely
Not Rasmussen. Fate
Gives a lesson to them: at halt
To light a bonfire. One praise!
It happens that to designate the whole, the name of some part of it is used - it is also a synecdoche. Examples can be those:
1.He knew that in the village of Nikishkino he was waiting for a roof and bread and salt.
2. In the herds we counted one hundred and twenty-nine heads of big-billed.
3. And he could not deceive them, seven pairs of naive eyes, that they looked with hope to him.
The use instead of the generic name generic also indicates that in this case a synecdoc is used. Examples of such a replacement are as follows:
1.Oh, you uneducated peasantry! The Internet itself without a modem will not work.
2. The soul sings! Hello, friends - my childhood pioneering!
Very often, the name is used instead of the generic name. For example:
1.No, I will not go today to walk: my kopeck has dried up, alas ...
2. The waves beckon my sail forward ...
In the distance, the romantic calls again!
The synecdoche is very close to metonymy. Often literary critics argue which type of pathway to include this or that expression. This is due to the fact that metonymy is also built on the constancy of the relationship between the phenomena, although a little different in character.
Pushkin's line "All flags will be visited by us" on the one hand is considered as "all ships will come to guests". That is, there is a synecdoche - using the name of the part instead of the whole.
If we assume that the word "flags" carries the meaning of the word "nation", then this is pure metonymy.
Thus, it can be concluded that the synecdoche- this expressive means, which allows the transfer of meaning on a quantitative basis: from the singular to the plural and vice versa, from the part of the object to the whole. It also implies the substitution of generic traits by species and, on the contrary, by species genera; naming a single object or phenomenon more general or multiple, and the whole group - by one representative of the set.
Examples of synecdoche can often be found in ordinary, common life.
"Mom, and now you have money to buy mean apple? "the girl in the store asks the parent. Using in speech instead of naming cash, finance in general, species substitution - the word "money", the child himself without knowing it uses a synecdoche.
And the elderly inveterate football fan is sadstates: "Yes, the current fan of another went ... Not that before!" The whole community of fans in his speech is called as if it is one single person.
This way, ignorant people in linguistics, people use the path with the sonorous name of "synecdoche".