Diabetes in the smallest
Diabetes in children is a chronic disease that develops as a result of disorders in the functioning of the pancreas.
Types of pathological disorders
In pediatric practice, diabetes mellitus occupies the first place among all pathologies of the endocrine system and is characterized by a more acute clinical picture than in adult patients. This is due to the accelerated course of all metabolic processes in the children's body. In the absence of specific treatment, the disease in a short time turns into an extremely severe form and threatens the life of a small patient.
For the normal course of all vital processes, the cells of the human body need energy. Its greatest amount is released during the splitting of glucose. In order for its components to participate in energy metabolism, a conductor is needed - the hormone insulin. It is produced by specific structures of the pancreas and when it is deficient, glucose splitting processes are disturbed, as a result, the concentration in the vascular bed increases significantly.
Endocrinologists distinguish the following types of this pathology:
- Type 1 diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent)- develops as a result of a violation of the structure of cells that produce insulin, as a result of which the concentration of this hormone in the patient's blood decreases sharply. As a result, glucose ceases to be absorbed in the body of the patient and accumulates in the bloodstream.
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus (non-insulin dependent)- This form of the disease develops against the background of normal insulin production. Glucose is not absorbed from food because cell receptors no longer recognize insulin.
Type 1 diabetes in children is diagnosed in more than 95% of clinical cases, but in adults, type 2 of this pathology prevails. Diabetic children need constant maintenance therapy, since complete healing cannot be achieved.
What factors provoke a disease?
It is widely misleading among the population that diabetes in children and adolescents develops as a result of excessive consumption of sweets. Numerous studies in the field of endocrinology have proven that such a statement is not true.
The causes of diabetes in children are as follows:
- Reduced immunity, frequent viral infections is the most common cause of diabetes at this age. The disease results from the fact that viral agents destroy the pancreatic structures that produce insulin. Sugar disease in a baby can develop as a complication after many types of viral infections (parotitis, rubella, measles, and others), so timely vaccination is of great importance in the prevention of endocrine pathologies.
- Genetic predisposition. The risk group for diabetes mellitus includes children whose one or both parents have this pathology. Since the number of cellular structures that produce insulin in humans is programmed at the genetic level, in more than half the cases of diabetic parents, children inherit this disease. A child can get sick at any age (even after 40 years), not necessarily immediately after birth.
- Unbalanced diet. The predominance of products containing easily digestible carbohydrates (sweets, flour products) in the child’s usual menu exerts an increased load on the pancreas.This leads to a decrease in the functionality of its structures and a decrease in the concentration of insulin in the vascular bed of a small patient.
- Obesity of any degree is extremely negative for the course of all types of metabolic processes in the child’s body. This may cause the receptors of the cells in his body to stop taking insulin, which leads to a sharp rise in the level of glucose in the blood, even against the background of a sufficient concentration of this hormone.
- Hypodynamia. A decrease in physical activity provokes the development of obesity and a decrease in the production of insulin by the pancreatic cells.
In some cases, a diabetic disease in the childhood period develops as a complication of other types of endocrine diseases, for example, while reducing the functionality of the thyroid gland.
Manifestations of the disease
Despite the fact that children have certain difficulties in identifying the characteristic symptoms of endocrine disorders, parents may suspect the development of this pathology in a child according to certain manifestations.
Signs of diabetes in children are as follows:
With the development of the disease, the amount of fluid consumed by the child increases significantly even in the autumn-winter period. Quite often, parents notice that the child, due to the attacks of thirst, begins to wake up at night.
Normally, the amount of urination in a child is up to 6 times a day, however, with the development of diabetes, this number increases to 15-20 times a day. Often in young patients there is a pathological disorder such as enuresis (night urinary incontinence). A typical manifestation of this disease is a change in the properties of urine (bedding becomes hard when it comes in contact with it, due to the increased content of sugar crystals in urine).
- Excessive dryness of the skin and visible mucous membranes.
Unreasonable weight loss.
This symptom occurs due to a violation of metabolic processes, as a result of which the nutrition of the cells becomes insufficient.
Violation of visual acuity.
Quite often, in the presence of diabetes mellitus, children develop pathologies of the organs of vision, since an increased concentration of glucose in the bloodstream has a toxic effect on the blood vessels of the eye retina.
Increase in general weakness, decrease in mental properties.
The cells of the body of the child receive an insufficient amount of energy, this leads to a sharp deterioration in his ability to work. Parents note that the kid often begins to complain of headaches and significant fatigue after school.
If such symptoms are present in a child for a long time, it is necessary to consult a doctor for consultation and conduct an appropriate laboratory examination.
What is dangerous diabetes
Complications of diabetes in children occur regardless of the type of pathological disorder and cause not only a significant deterioration in the quality of life of the baby, but can also provoke his disability.
Conventionally, all complications can be divided into 2 groups:
- specific- occur directly as a result of endocrine disorders in the body and are due to the toxic effect of increased glucose concentration on small blood vessels;
- non-specific- develop due to the reduction of the protective forces of the body of a small patient and the addition of secondary infections.
- Diabetic retinopathy- a sharp decrease in visual acuity is initially observed. As the pathological process aggravates, the child is diagnosed as "visually impaired," because he has retinal detachment and blindness develops.
- Diabetic Nephropathy- Damage to the renal vessels leads to the formation of chronic renal failure.
- Angiopathy- due to impaired microcirculation, there is a formation of trophic ulcerations on the skin of the lower limbs, the development of pain due to excessive physical exertion.
- Encephalopathy- Damage to cerebral vessels leads to severe emotional, mental and mental disorders.
Damage to the blood vessels as a result of the progression of diabetes mellitus can occur in any of the internal organs or systems (liver, reproductive, cardiovascular system). Any kind of complication is serious and therapeutic measures must be effective so that the patient’s condition does not worsen, is stable.
Little patients with diagnosed diabetes, regardless of whether it is a boy or a girl, may have children in the future. However, they should remember that the risk of transmission of this disease in generations is quite high.
The main method of examination for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is the glucose tolerance test. The result is considered positive if, after each blood sampling, a laboratory technician detects a blood sugar level of more than 7.5 mmol / liter.
An additional diagnostic method for suspected diabetes mellitus is an ultrasound examination of the pancreas.
When diabetes is diagnosed in children, the treatment of this disease depends on its type. Therapeutic measures in any clinical case should be developed only by an endocrinologist. A prerequisite in the treatment process is the daily monitoring of the level of glucose in the blood. At home, it is carried out with the help of a special device - a glucometer.
Treatment of type 1 diabetes in children primarily involves the regular implementation of insulin injections.This is due to the fact that the own cells of the pancreas either do not function at all, or produce a hormone in insufficient quantities. The calculation of the required dose of insulin is carried out only by the attending physician, since any deviations in the dosage of the drug can lead to the development of life-threatening conditions - hyper- or hypoglycemic coma.
In pediatric practice, only short-acting insulin preparations are used (Protofan, Aktropid). In order to prevent the development of critical conditions, parents should take care that a disabled child fully feeds, avoiding significant breaks between regular meals.
It is necessary to strictly follow all the recommendations of the doctor regarding the diet and in any case not to violate the established regime.This is due to the fact that the endocrinologist calculates a therapeutic dose of insulin, based on the number of calories that enter the body along with food.
In case of a malignant course of diabetes mellitus, surgical treatment is indicated - pancreatic transplantation.
If a child is diagnosed with grade 3 or 4 of type 1 diabetes, he is automatically given disability status. At the same time, there is some support from the state: the disabled person is provided with free insulin, syringes for its introduction, as well as a glucometer and test strips to it.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 in children requires therapeutic measures:
- the strictest adherence to a diet developed by the attending physician. This helps prevent a sharp rise in the blood glucose level in the patient;
- carrying out specific therapy aimed at eliminating the underlying disease that caused the development of the disease - obesity, other endocrine system pathologies;
- drug therapy involves the administration of glucose-lowering drugs (Glurenorm, Amaryl, Siofor), and vitamin complexes, in which chromium is necessarily present;
- measured physical activity;
- the use of traditional medicine, herbal remedies that help the patient to lower the level of glucose in the blood.
If, in the event of aggravation of this form of diabetes, the baby receives the status of a disabled person, state aid to him is to provide free anti-diabetes medications, as well as free health resort treatment.
It is much easier to prevent the development of this disease than to fight it afterwards.
Prevention of diabetes in children begins from the moment of their birth and provides for activities:
- Breast feeding. The use of infant milk in the first year of life not only strengthens the immune system, but also significantly reduces the risk of endocrine disorders.A child with a genetic predisposition becomes more protected if this preventive measure is observed.
- Often a sick child is more vulnerable to the development of pancreatic pathologies, therefore timely implementation of vaccination reduces the risk of developing sugar disease of any type.
- Development of a balanced diet, obesity prevention.
- Children can become ill with diabetes and as a result of psycho-emotional upheaval, therefore it is extremely important to exclude stressful situations in their daily lives.
The organization of a healthy lifestyle and nutrition, the maximum exclusion of adverse effects on the body, helps to avoid the development of the disease. Parents should regularly conduct preventive medical examinations of the child, especially if there are relatives with a diagnosis of diabetes in the family. This will identify the disease in the early stages and improve the effectiveness of therapeutic measures.