Common Misconceptions

Common Misconceptions

Free travel in the universe of common misconceptions: from biblical myths to physics in war. Astronomy, high gastronomy, brainstorming and poor lemmings.

Dumb, Dumber
As you know, a person uses only 10% of his brain. The remaining volume of gray matter (which is actually yellowish and turns gray only when stored in chemicals) harbors unprecedented secrets. Having “dispersed” the brain to the full, it will be possible to count the number “pi” in your mind, get the moon from the sky for your loved one (knocking it off telekinesis from the sky), teleport from the Earth dying from a collision with your satellite, and turn back The above disgraces, in a word, make it so that superhero comics are used instead of the fact that the human brain functions only at 10% of its power, is true. But only in relation to the one who came up with such utter nonsense. The most remarkable thing is that the roots of this tale (the percentage indicates different, there are 5 and 7) could not be established.
Probably, the culprits here are our fellow journalists who misunderstood and quoted scholars of the late 19th - early 20th century. Perhaps the fault is the misunderstanding of the ratio in the brain volume of neurons and glial cells (the latter in it really is up to 90%).
In fact, every day we use the full potential of our brain. Even for the simplest task, almost all its departments are activated. Electric signals are produced at 12 watts, which would be enough only for the operation of a small light bulb.
Nerve cells recover. But "newbies" appear only in two areas of the brain and die very soon.60

Eh, apple
Apple is an extremely harmful fruit. Because of him, Troy was destroyed, a sleeping beauty was poisoned, and, moreover, because of the apple, we all lead a miserable existence on Earth, because our progenitor Eve chose a talking snake as a dietitian consultant.
But the Bible does not say anywhere what exactly Adam and Eve ate. The cause of the fall is designated as “fruit from the tree” (“... only the fruit of the tree that is among heaven, God said, do not eat them and do not touch them so that you do not die,” Genesis 3: 3).The church itself appointed an apple to the harmful fruit because of the same spelling of the Latin words “evil” and “apple”. But in fact, the fruit of sin from a tree in the center of paradise could have been anything from a cedar cone to a coconut ...
“Malum” in Latin means both “evil” and “apple”.61

It is not true that ...
... The risk of catching cold in the cold increases. At least, scientists have so far failed to reproduce the effect of "cooled - ill." The cold reduces the body's resistance to existing infections, but people get sick due to the fact that during cold seasons they sit more indoors, contacting patients more often and longer ...
If you eat at night - you will grow fat. There is no direct dependence, indirect ones are still being studied ...
Part of the moon is dark because the shadow of the Earth falls on it. The shadow of the Earth falls on the Moon only during lunar eclipses, making it not invisible, but terribly purple. The rest of the time, the dark part of the moon is simply not illuminated by the sun ...
In equinox, it is easier to balance an egg at one of its ends. It's equally difficult all year, astronomy and gravity have nothing to do with it ...
From excess sex (or masturbation) can be blinded.The myth comes from the Middle Ages, when the complications of the most popular venereal disease - syphilis - really led to blindness, madness and death ...
Only five senses. A person still has feelings of balance, acceleration, temperature, pain and the so-called “kinesthesia” (feeling of the position of each part of the body in space and relative to each other) ...
Contact with toads can cause warts. Warts appear from a virus peculiar to man. The growths on the skin of toads are not warts ...
The current population of the Earth is half the number of people who have ever lived. It is extremely difficult to calculate this, but presumably from 45 to 125 billion people lived on our planet ...

All fox
The most suicidal animal is not an ostrich on asphalt at all in a strong thunderstorm. Lemmings! As we all know, sometimes they go crazy at once, lining up one by one and following a friendly march to the nearest cliff. A clever jump on the stones with his head down - and the problem of overpopulation of the tundra is solved.
But how not so! Lemmings are no suicides. Yes, indeed, with a sharp outbreak of the population, starving animals begin mass migration, during which a significant number of these rodents die (for example, when crossing over rough rivers).However, on purpose, no one anywhere jumps - lemmings are looking for new areas of food, and not trying to turn the idyllic landscape into a large-scale apocalyptic picture.
It is also not true that the lemmings blindly go where the rest follow, and if one of them falls off a cliff, the other individuals thoughtlessly repeat his “feat.” Lemmings have no herd instinct.
The legend of the organized suicide of lemmings was born due to the fault of the author of the 1954 article in National Geographic magazine (illustrated photograph of lemmings jumping off a cliff) and the creators of the film “White Heath” (Disney studio, 1958), who also demonstrated the mass suicide of these animals. The secret of the sensation is simple - to achieve a “suicidal” effect in front of the camera, the crew members shoved the poor lemmings off the broom.
Lemming sooner or later comes arctic fox. What to do if they are the main fox forage.62

Blots
Mistakes on stamps are not human errors in themselves, but they are often the result of not only carelessness or equipment failure, but also the banal illiteracy of artists.
Brand GDR 1956.Released in honor of Robert Schumann, whose portrait is quite a success. Only here the notes on the background - from the "Song of the Night Wanderer" by Franz Schubert ..63.

The 1986 Botswana stamp series depicts Halley's comet. Such gigantic proportions that it immediately becomes clear - to call Bruce Willis late, after a few seconds Botswana, and maybe the whole Earth will end.64

Tastes differ
Have you heard this expression - “taste map of the language”? It has long been known that by the base of the tongue we feel bitterness, its sides closer to the base - sour, sides of the tip - salty, and the tip itself - sweet. Such gourmet geography has always been taken into account by tasters who tried to analyze products by the relevant parts of the language. Moreover, this nonsense was taught to children in schools.
It is shinier. It turns out that salted peanuts are the best to suck on the cheek, sweet tea should be varnished like a dog, and lemon tea should be thrust deeper into the throat?
But all this was due to an error in the translation of the German text made by the Harvard scientist Dr. Edwin Boring in 1901. Just. But since then everyone thinks that receptors of different tastes are concentrated in different parts of the language.
It is not true. We feel the tastes of the entire surface of the tongue.
In addition to 4 traditional flavors, distinguish between hot, tart, greasy, metallic and Asian "umami" (the taste of fermented food).65

Horns yes legs
A Viking without a horned helmet - like a Scot without a kilt, a Mexican without a sombrero, a Jew without a pile, a Turk without a fez, a Russian without a hat, or at worst, a Monomah without a hat. Any image search engine gives out on request “viking” fair-haired (or red) bearded men in metal bowlers with cow horns.
Beautiful, but not true. There is not a single historical confirmation of the fact that horned helmets were present in the combat equipment of northern European seafarers of the 8-11th century. But it is reliably known that the Celts had horned helmets, but were used only for ritual purposes.
Indeed, the main purpose of the helmet is to deflect the blow. For this, it must be smooth. Speakers horns would take the energy of impact, passing it to the Viking head. A concussion to him was completely useless. There is some indirect evidence of a later time (tapestries, prints) with images of Scandinavians in horned helmets, but the latter could perform all the same ritual or decorative functions,not being used in combat.
Of the skull cups, the Vikings, in spite of another, less common, misconception, were also never drunk. Either they managed very well to hide this interesting habit from archaeologists.
Celtic ritual horned helmet.66

Oranges
Do you like sushi (or sushi, although the controversial sound is pronounced rather like a short "yi")? Right. Healthy food plus exotic minus a lot of money for food, which, in general, at home is considered fast food like bigmak or our cakes.
Only the dishes you eat are not sushi. “Sushi” was originally called white fine-grained rice with rice vinegar sauce, sugar, salt, kombu and sake. In other words, sushi is a specially prepared rice with vinegar (literally “sushi” means “it is sour”). And nothing more.
Raw fish with sauces is called "sashimi." And sushi with fish (or other stuffing), sauces, wasabi and gari is called a variety of terms depending on how the dish was prepared: nigiridzushi (miniature sandwiches from rice and fish), makizushi (cylinders in nori seaweed), tirasijzushi (the filling is poured right on the rice in the plate), and so on.
However, the term “sushi” in the sense of ready-to-eat food with a filling has already taken root, therefore, it is not at all embarrassing to use it as such.
River fish in sushi is not used (parasites are supposedly more common in it). Wasabi is not horseradish, but cabbage, which has antimicrobial properties, is useful when eating raw fish.67

He was green
The word "chameleon" has become a household word. The fantastic ability of these lizards to redistribute skin pigments, changing its color, gave rise to the myth that if you put a chameleon on the sand, it will turn yellow, on a rosebush it will be covered with red spots, and if you put it on the TV, it will go crazy. This is actively used in science fiction - remember, for example, the Martian lizard Varechka near the Strugatsky (“The Road to Amalthea”), capable of mimicking the coloring of any object.
First, only some varieties of chameleons can change color. Secondly, this animal, adapted to the woody way of life, already has natural camouflage. "Default" his skin is green. It does not change at the request of the chameleon, but depending on the lighting, temperature and emotional state of the chameleon.Under the specific terrain, he never disguised.
The speed of ejection of the tongue is 1/30 second.68

Warm, warmer, hot!
Remember school courses in natural history? One half of the second-half's brain is waiting for the call, the second is already mentally at home, at the computer, and the kind teacher tries to fit on this intellectual Procrustean bed information that it becomes warmer in summer because the Earth is closer to the Sun and turned towards it by the northern hemisphere. And in the winter, respectively, on the contrary.
In fact, in July, the hottest month of the northern hemisphere, the Earth is at its maximum distance from the Sun. And in the winter is closest, but because of the tilting of the earth's axis, we get much less light and, accordingly, heat.
Without tilting the earth’s axis, day and night at any time of the year would have lasted the same.69

The truth is somewhere near
Do not sit so close to the TV! Do not play on your computer for more than 40 minutes a day! Do not read in poor light!
Familiar since childhood? Parents wanted the best, tried to save your precious (you know how much laser correction costs?) Vision. And it was in vain that they tormented you, depriving you of the small joys of life.Studies have shown that the distance to the TV and the duration of its viewing is in no way connected with the development of visual defects. The same goes for computer monitors.
Think about it yourself - otherwise all office workers dealing with computers 8-12 hours a day and sitting half a meter from the monitors would have been blind for a long time.
Yes, reading in low light conditions and watching TV for a long time (monitor) causes eye strain. But even the systematic abuse of this occupation does not lead to damage to the eyes. Watch TV as you want and from where you want - even with your nose buried in the screen.
Eating carrots does not affect vision. In contrast, vitamin A is quite toxic and its abuse is life threatening. From excess beta-carotene, your skin will turn yellow-orange.70

Elementary particles
Have you heard about the neutron bomb? Great stuff. It explodes, lights up the surprised world with gentle radioactive rays - and in half an hour your soldiers can easily walk along the streets of an extinct enemy city, enjoying untouched architectural sights. People disappear, but material values ​​remain. Very profitable.
And very stupid. With the same success, it is possible to bring down the weapon of the opposite impact - the company of ensigns (material values ​​disappear, people remain).
A nuclear bomb with an additional charge of deuterium and tritium actually produces a strong stream of fast neutrons. But we are talking about an explosion of up to kilotons (a zone of severe damage has a radius of about 1 kilometer). The so-called “neutron bombs” were developed in the West in the 1960s to fight the Soviet tank armada in Europe, which, according to calculations, could take the troops of the “free world” into the English Channel in just a few days.
The tanks of that time were well protected from conventional nuclear explosions: shock waves, heat, some types of radiation. Neutrons easily overcome tank armor (giving it strong radioactivity) and at a distance of 700 meters from the epicenter of the explosion, the crew is killed on the spot.
Minus "neutron bombs" - a small radius of action. Due to the strong scattering of neutrons in the atmosphere, effective destruction of targets is possible only at a distance of up to one and a half kilometers - that is, in the same place where the shock wave passes, destroying weakly protected targets.There can be no talk of excursions in a depopulated city. We will have to walk around the ruins - and even not for long, because after the “treatment” with neutrons, they will emit deadly doses of radiation.
The launch of the MGM-52 Lance rocket, the carrier of the W70-3 "neutron" warhead.71

I'm not me, not my cow
“Question Mark”: “The only traditions of the royal fleet are rum, whip and sodomy” (Winston Churchill).
Exclamation Mark: The Great Drunkard never said this; the aphorism belongs to his secretary, Montague Brown.
"Question Mark": "Houston, we have a problem!" (Crew of the Apollo 13).
“Exclamation mark”: Real radio talks: (2 day, 7 hours, 55 minutes, 19 seconds of flight) “OK, Houston ... I think we have a problem here ... (pause 15 seconds)“ Houston, we had problem ... "(followed by technical details of the problem).
“Question Mark”: “Elementary, Watson!” (Sherlock Holmes).
Exclamation Mark: Holmes did not say this phrase in any of the 56 stories and 4 novels. For the first time she sounded in the 1929 film adaptation.72

iron Horse
Everyone who knows how to ride a bike, knows that the faster you go, the more stable your iron horse. From this, a conclusion appears logical at first glance: a bicycle is a gyroscope that preserves the orientation of the axis of the wheels due to their high speed of rotation.
The first study on this topic belongs to the Frenchman Emmanuel Carvalho, whose work was published in 1897. It took people over a hundred years to put an end to this question. Two years ago, a 28-page work by scientists from the USA, Great Britain and the Netherlands “Linearized dynamic stabilization for balance and stability of a bicycle” was released. It turns out that the stability of the bike depends on the interaction of more than 17 parameters, the most important of which is the diameter, the speed of rotation of the wheels and the location of the center of gravity. Due to this, if you push the bike, then he can drive independently (without a cyclist) about 50 meters.
It's a shame to part with the legend, so last year the restless Japanese (engineers at Kayo University in Yokohama) made a self-stabilizing bicycle. A gyroscope is installed under the saddle to control the deviation from the equilibrium position and to adjust the steering wheel accordingly (an electric motor is hidden in the steering column).
We hope that the exposure of this myth will not deprive cyclists of the ability to maintain balance. Belief in the help of the laws of physics is much stronger than belief in one’s own strength.It's like in Tom and Jerry cartoons: you can even run through the air, the main thing is not to look down.
An electric bike maintains stability for an arbitrarily long time.73

Both new cyclists and experienced athletes think only of one thing: “The main thing is not to fall!”
Score arrow
Here is a compass for you. Tell me where is north?
We agree, a stupid question - of course, where a magnetized arrow points.
But we have even more stupid: where does it show?
Right, to the north pole.
The North Magnetic Pole is not so far from the geographical. Until recently, he was in the 200-mile economic zone of Canada, but now he no longer "belongs" to her and is actively moving towards Taimyr.
Only this is not the north magnetic pole, but from the point of view of physics, it is the south one. Think for yourself: the compass needle has a negative magnetic charge and is attracted to the opposite. That is, looking at the South Pole. The concepts of "north" and "south" were invented long before the invention of the compass. The fact that he points to the north is misleading many. In the north is actually the south magnetic pole of the Earth.
And mother nature is to blame for everything.780 thousand years ago, our planet had an inversion of magnetic fields, due to which they turned upside down.

There is a mistake that should never be made: claim that you never made mistakes. Old misconceptions are much stronger than the new truth, so we need to be able to carefully find them and draw conclusions. A well-known saying says that you learn from mistakes, and smart ones learn from others. It is senseless to comprehend the truth through your mistakes, because there are much more foreign blunders, and you are unlikely to live long enough to break as much firewood. If you are not yet tired of this topic - write to us, leave feedback on forum.mirf.ru, and the “World of Fiction” will definitely return to it.

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  • Common Misconceptions

    Common Misconceptions

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