Balsam description and growing tips
Garden balsam comes from subtropical regions of Asia - in addition, it is found in a similar climatic belt of Africa and on the island of Zanzibar. Consequently, the flower must be provided with appropriate care, which consists in abundant watering and creating an acceptable temperature.
However, the love of moisture, which distinguishes these flowers, is conditional - balsam feels quite well in relatively dry conditions, but at the same time its appearance changes greatly.
The height of the stems of the plant reaches 50 cm or 25-30 cm, subject to cultivation in a pot. The leaves are rather large, elongated in length, as well as fleshy and possessing clearly visible purple or purple streaks.
Balsam flowers are located at the base of the leaves - they are large in size and may vary shades. In nature, they are pink or purple, however, lately garden hybrids of other colors, including those with terry inflorescences, have appeared. The only exception is a balsam can not be yellow and blue.
In the fully opened inflorescences of balsam, small processes are formed, which have the scientific name “spur”. Flowers at landing in the ground appear around the end of May and fall in September and early October. If the balsam is grown at home, providing appropriate care, you can achieve year-round flowering with a constant replacement of inflorescences.
Quite an interesting fact is that the garden balsam can be one-year or multi-year - the last option is preferable for indoor cultivation, and the first one is for open cultivation.
Planting occurs mainly in seeds, although you can purchase adult balsam in a garden shop. Germination is excellent, so seeding occurs on one piece in each peat pot, filled with slightly acidic soil.
Within 15-20 days balsam should be kept at home, ensuring its content in the temperature range + 21 ... + 26 degrees. After the first shoots appear, flowers can be moved to the balcony or to another unheated room with a temperature of + 18 ... + 22 degrees. Care must include access to sunlight.
When the plant reaches about 5 cm in height, you can replant it in garden soil or in a pot. Balsam gently dive and remove along with a clod of wet earth. The root of the bottom must be pinched in order to achieve the formation of an extensive root system that provides high-quality nutrition to the plant. On the beds we form pits, the size of which should be 0.5-1 cm less than the dimensions of the coma of the earth in which the roots of the flower are located. Balsam gently seated in the prepared hole and tamped soil in order to facilitate its adaptation to a new place.
The soil around the laid coma can be loosened and slightly watered - but try not to touch the roots of the balsam. If the soil has a low level of fertility, it is necessary to put a little top-dressing of manure in the hole, which is covered with fine sand and peat from above. It is necessary to mulch the surface of the soil regardless of environmental conditions - for this, use finely dissected green mass or a specially prepared substrate. To make the balsam garden grow as wide as possible, cut the top of a sprout with a pair of garden scissors.
How to care for a plant?
In addition, when the temperature exceeds 20-24 degrees, balsamine is required to be sprayed every day to prevent it from drying out. However, you must be extremely careful - care should not include the ingress of water on the root neck or on the flowers, as this can cause rotting of the plant. In winter, home flowers are not watered abundantly - it is enough to do this every 2-3 days, introducing water into the area near the rim of the pot.
The temperature for a balsam during the summer period should fluctuate within 18 ... 24 degrees. When it is strongly exceeded, it is better to remove the flower from the reach of direct sunlight, and also to make the hydration more intense. Care allows short-term decrease in the index to 15 degrees - and this must be done if you can not achieve flowering for a long time.
In winter, balsam is kept at a temperature of 13 ... 16 degrees - if the temperature is higher, the plant can overwinter badly or even die.Be careful and do not allow strong changes in temperature conditions of content - for example, if you constantly open the window in the winter, next to which there is a balsam, care for him will be vain.
Like all tropical plants, garden balsam prefers to be under good natural light, which is a necessary condition for its flowering. Pritenyat it is necessary only in the hottest period of the year - in the open field you can organize a small canopy, and at home use a blackout filter that is installed on the window.
If the bush is planted in the shade, it will grow higher - there are specimens up to 80 cm, but the number of flowers will decrease by about 40-60%. In winter, balsam put under fitolampu - otherwise the plant may stop flowering or even be affected by the disease.
If you want to transplant an adult plant, you should cut cuttings off it in August and root it so that by spring they are ready to form a healthy shrub. Balsam begin to be planted in open ground around the beginning of May, or in its middle, if there is a threat of repeated frosts. In the process, you must follow a few basic recommendations:
- The lower part of the roots should hang down freely - for this, sticking primer is shaken from them, trying not to damage the plant itself.
- Before transplantation, the balsam must be watered in order for the plant to receive additional nourishment, and the clod of earth around it will become durable and sustainable.
- In the hole in the garden should be put a little dressing from a mixture of humus, sand and peat. You can also use a standard liquid fertilizer for indoor flowers.
Transplantation is tolerated quite easily - the only exception is the case of serious damage to the root system or stem. If you want to avoid any problems, in the first few days also avoid abundant watering - water should be poured about 10 cm from the stem in such a way that the ground was slightly damp.
At low ambient temperature and considerable humidity, balsam may be affected by bacteriosis - it is accompanied by the appearance of black or brown specks on the leaf surface. In such a case, it is necessary to spray the plant with a weak solution of phytosporin or another plant antibiotic of the tetracycline group.
A common problem is drooping flowers - in this case, carefully check the conditions of detention. If the temperature and illumination are normal, the cause of the trouble is a spider mite, from which herbicide spraying helps.