American Democracy 2
Although the term “regime change” appeared in the lexicon of American citizens relatively recently, it is not at all new. Throughout most of its history, but especially since the beginning of the twentieth century, the United States considered it necessary to intervene in the fate of other countries. Often this was done under the pretext of “protecting national security,” but soon you will see that, as a rule, there were also hidden motives. Without further ado: here are the ten worst cases of regime change with the direct intervention of the United States.
10. The coup d'état in Syria
The degree of American participation in the bloodless coup that overthrew the secular democracy that arose in Syria after World War II is still a matter of dispute. The fact is that in 1949 the CIA decided that it would be good for the interests of the United States to “encourage” a coup d'état in the country. Because of the position of Syria Shukri al-Qatli, who was then at the head of the project, the construction of the Trans-Arab pipeline was under threat, which did not meet the interests of American oil companies.
Thus, the CIA has relied on the master of dark deeds, Husni Al-Zaim, who less than ten years earlier was convicted of taking bribes, and he overthrew the democratically elected president of Syria. Almost immediately, a pipeline construction plan was approved, as well as a number of other pro-American initiatives, including peace negotiations with Israel. (The first Arab-Israeli war ended just a year before). However, just four months after he came to power, Al-Zaim himself was also overthrown, and then shot by a stronger rival who ruled for five years, until he was overthrown. For nearly two decades, coups followed one after another until Hafez al-Assad, who ruled the country for 30 years until his death, came to power.
9. PBSUCCESS operation
Like a number of other political conflicts staged by the United States, the regime change in Guatemala in 1954 occurred under the pretext of the threat of communism in the country. The country's second democratically elected president, Jacobo Arbens, conducted a series of land reforms and populist actions aimed at improving the lives of the poorest Guatemalans.The CIA did not approve of the president’s actions and almost immediately took him to the sight. “On sight” is both in the direct and figurative sense, the version of the murder was considered right up to the overthrow of Arbenz. In addition to the CIA, the United Fruit Company United Fruit, which as a result of the reforms lost not only their land in Guatemala, but also the possibility of unlimited exploitation of Guatemalans, was among the disgruntled. The company lobbied for intervention in the US government.
The “psychological warfare and political action” plan, called “Operation PBSUCCESS”, was approved by President Eisenhower in 1953. The CIA trained and financed a paramilitary group led by Castillo Armas, who tried to forcibly overthrow Arbens, despite a series of failures. Thanks to propaganda, which was part of “Operation PBSUCCESS”, the threat of US intervention was enough to make Arbenz resign. Ten days later, Armas came to power. During its forty years of authoritarian rule, a bloody civil war almost continuously took place in the country, as a result of which the population of the Guatemalan Maya was significantly reduced.The coup was widely condemned by the international community, some compared the Americans with the "colonizers" or the fact that "Hitler spoke of Austria."
8. Operation Rage Outbreak
Grenada is a small island in the Caribbean, located 640 kilometers south of Puerto Rico. As locals say, Grenada is "south of paradise, north of disillusionment." President Reagan was greatly disappointed by the Marxists who controlled the country from the very beginning of his presidency. In 1983, tired of what they considered to be insufficiently radical behavior, members of the ruling party of Grenada executed their leader, replacing him with Hudson Austin, a general of the Revolutionary Peoples Army. For Americans, it became the straw that broke the camel’s back, and an island invasion plan was urgently developed.
The troubles began immediately, creating problems that lasted throughout most of the “Outbreak of Rage” operation: various warlords could not agree with each other on what should be done. In the end, more than 7,000 soldiers were landed in Grenada, they had different tasks, but the main goal was to overthrow the established regime.(The pretext for the invasion was the "task of saving American students in the country"). As a result of the clash with the might of the US military, the Austin government was overthrown and replaced by a pro-American leader. Responding to a question about the almost unanimous international resentment about the invasion, Reagan said simply: "This did not spoil my breakfast at all."
7. The war in Iraq
The war in Iraq began in 2003 under the pretext of the removal of Saddam Hussein, who allegedly possessed weapons of mass destruction. In fact, this was not the case; Hussein more and more collaborated with UN inspectors. However, President Bush made a number of his demands and, ultimately, presented Hussein with an ultimatum: to leave the country or face an invasion.
Despite fervent international protests, after the expiration of the ultimatum, the United States and other coalition forces began hostilities. Although the usual war was quickly ended, as the Iraqis could not be compared with their opponents, the rebels still remain a thorn in the face of the Americans and have resisted the American military presence for many years.Although the end result of the US intervention is still to be determined, it is difficult to consider successful actions, which resulted in the death of almost 200,000 civilians.
6. The first war with "Kakos"
By 1915, after four years of constant political turmoil, the US government decided that the island nation of Haiti is a problem that can only be solved by force. This year Vilbryn Guillaume Sam, a ruthless dictator who became famous for executing his political opponents, was expelled from Haiti. He was expelled by the same people who were behind the last six coups in the country: the Haitian peasant militia known as “Kakos”. Alarmed by the fact that they have less and less chance of repayment of debts, France, England, Germany and the United States sent troops to the island.
However, it was the American troops who landed first who faced little resistance. Tired of the populist statements that provoked the last coup, Kakos refused to give up, as they did in the past. A guerrilla war, called the First War with Kakos, began, and it lasted for several months, until the American Marines stormed Fort Riviera, the last stronghold of Kakos.The country was taken over by a pro-American politician named Philip Sadr Dartigenawa, who remained in power until 1922. American troops remained on the island until 1934, when, by order of President Roosevelt, they transferred their authority to the Guard of Haiti.
5. Operation “Just Cause”
In 1989, the notorious dictator of Panama, Manuel Noriega, who ruled the country for six years and engaged in trafficking in cocaine, was helped by the CIA in conducting various secret military operations throughout Latin America. By 1986, the United States no longer needed his help, and there were reports that he was a double agent. A couple of years later, an American court found him guilty of drug trafficking. (Noriega’s many contacts with the CIA led to a number of scandals, including Iran-Contra.)
In the 1989 elections, Guillermo Endara won, the head of the Democratic Alliance of Civic Opposition, who opposed Noriega. Outraged by his loss, Noriega declared the elections invalid, making himself the de facto sole ruler of the country. The US government came under pressureconcerned about drug crime and the apparent escalation of threats against Americans living in Panama. As a result, on December 20, a landing took place in several different places of the American troops with the aim of occupying strategic facilities. In the end, Noriega was arrested in the Vatican mission in Panama City, he surrendered as a result of a combination of diplomatic pressure from the Vatican and constant rock music (which Noriega hated) under the windows of the mission. After that, the presidency was taken by Guillermo Endar.
4. The overthrow of Victoriano Worth Ortega
It was 1913. As a result of three years of continuous bloody conflicts in Mexico, several presidents were overthrown one by one. After several particularly turbulent days, called the “tragic decade,” the country was led by General Victoriano Huerta. The United States, represented by President Wilson, not relying on democratic elections, although reluctantly, at first recognized the newly-formed dictator. A year later, nine American sailors were arrested for entering the forbidden zone in Mexico. Then they were led around the city, which angered the commander of the US Navy in the region.An ultimatum was announced, and when Mexico refused to comply, President Wilson sent marines to occupy the port city of Veracruz. After a brief battle, the US army took control of the city and freed it only after President Worth left office.
Worth later came into contact with German intelligence, which planned to use it to force the US into a war with Mexico. When Worth returned to Mexico from New York, in which he lived after his resignation, he was arrested by American servicemen. Worth was immediately accused of inciting rebellion. He later died while in custody.
3. Puerto Rican campaign
During the Spanish-American War, a number of Spanish possessions in the Western Hemisphere became the site of conflict between the two countries. Among these properties was a small island of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean. Less than a month after the start of the war, the US naval forces imposed a naval blockade around the port of San Juan, then the ground forces were deployed, and having lost only seven people, the US captured the island.The war ended shortly after Spain ceded a number of territories, including Cuba, the Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico.
Although US control over Cuba was temporary from the very beginning, the other three territories were declared US possessions. Almost immediately, Puerto Rico fell under the “leadership” of various military, who began to “Americanize” the population, mainly through the use of schools and the introduction of compulsory lessons in English. It was only 54 years later that the citizens of Puerto Rico were allowed to democratically elect their leader, although they still remain under the control of the United States.
2. Operation Ajax
In the early 1950s, Mohammed Mosaddyk became the democratically elected prime minister of Iran. In an effort to strengthen national control over the country's oil fields, he began to verify the activities of the British-Iranian oil company (AINK, now BP). America, as in many other similar cases, expressed fears that the country might fall under the influence of the Soviet Union. Fearing communist victory in Iran, the CIA began planning to overthrow Mosaddyk,Hoping to confirm the authority of Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi as monarch and establish General Fazlol Zahedi as the new leader of the country.
A joint group of British and American intelligence services has begun to finance various groups in Iran, which carried out terrorist acts aimed at undermining public confidence in the Mossadegh government. (In addition, AIHK contributed money to bribing officials). The coup of 1953 was successful; during the conflict, about 300 people died, many were thrown into prisons or executed after the sentences of the Shah’s military tribunals. Pahlavi ruled for another 26 years, until anti-American sentiment, to a large extent fueled by the constant US involvement in Middle Eastern politics, did not lead to an Iranian revolution in 1979.
1. The overthrow of Queen Liliuokalani
The first and last Queen of the Hawaiian Islands, Liliuokalani, took the throne in 1891, after the death of her brother. Faced with a decline in the authority of royal power, she sought to strengthen the role of the monarchy in Hawaiian politics. In addition, she sought to reduce the influence of foreign-born entrepreneurs and landowners, many of whom were Americans.When they got to know about the plans of the queen, the rich elite conspired with the American military about her removal. In 1893, Liliuokalani was arrested.
The Mission was led by the Missionary Party, led by Sanford Dole (yes, the Dole Food Company). A government was created that declared its goal of joining the islands to the United States. Despite the resistance of President Cleveland, who even unsuccessfully tried to restore Liliuokalani to the throne, in 1898, Hawaii was joined. Liliuokalani became the heroine of the Hawaiian song “Aloha Oe”, which is still very much loved on the island.