Acetic acid, chemical properties and safety issues
Acetic acid is a clear and colorless liquid substance with a very characteristic sour-burning taste and strong odor. The substance is capable of mixing with all kinds of organic and inorganic solvents, it is excellently miscible with water, possesses enhanced hygroscopic properties. And besides, this reagent itself is a highly effective solvent with a wide range of operation for production purposes.
The chemical belongs to the number of carboxylic acids, organic substances, having at least one carboxyl group (COOH) in its composition. Acetic acid has properties inherent in all acids. Able to interact with metals, formingsalts of acetic acidcalled acetates. Acetates are also called esters formed with acetic acid.
Concentratedacetic acidcalled"ice", since, in the undiluted state, this chemical does not turn into a monolithic solid substance, like most other liquid substances, during freezing, but takes on a structure similar to a crystalline mass.
In a concentrated form, the compound has the properties of a toxic reagent that can extremely negatively affect the tissues of the human body. When ingested into a human digestive system, the substance leaves burns on the surface of its organs, and a dose of 20 grams of concentrated acetic acid is fatal to humans.
Vapors of substances capable of substantially irritating mucous membranes by inhalation are also dangerous. Therefore, in the practical use of reagent, it is necessary to use respiratory protection and work in areas with effective ventilation.
And also, acetic acid is among the flammable compounds, so near it it is unacceptable to use open fire, welding and other fire work, smoking, etc.
Acetic acid is usedin chemical industrial production, where its dissolving properties were useful, and it can also serve as a raw material for the production of an extensive range of substances. With its use receive: cellulose acetate, a large group of paints, acetone and other chemical compounds.
This reagent is also used in pharmacology, where with its use a variety of drugs with a wide variety of effects are produced. The substance is also in demand in perfumery, where it is used to produce perfumes, colognes, deodorants, and other varieties of aromatic products.
However, most of the acetic acid produced by the chemical industry is consumed in food production, where this component is officially registered as E260 food additive with a function of acidity regulator and stabilizer. This ingredient is used in the manufacture of confectionery products, various sauces and a variety of canned products.
Acetic acid production
Nowadays, there are several ways of industrial production of this chemical.Some of them in the modern chemical industry are considered obsolete and ineffective. This is the method of partial oxidation of butane (in some cases ethylene was used). Also used the method of carbonylation of methyl alcohol using cobalt catalysts. And an even more ancient method is known - fermentation of raw materials with a rich content of alcohol components, as a result of which alcohol is fermented into vinegar.
As already mentioned, these methods have lost relevance due to the fact that more efficient production technologies were developed. This is the oxidation of acetaldehyde by oxygen, produced at a temperature of 50-60 ° C in the presence of manganese acetate as a catalyst of the process.
There is also a fairly advanced method, which consists in the oxidation of n-butane (one of the isomers of butane) with atmospheric oxygen at elevated temperature and elevated pressure. The main characteristics of this method are the temperature at 200 ° C, the pressure within 50 bar and the use of cobalt as a catalytic component.
Also in the chemical industry practiced method of interaction of methyl alcohol with carbon monoxide.It is also characterized by the use of catalysts, only in this case they are iridium or rhodium.
What is Acetic Essence
Since acetic acid in its pure form, as already mentioned above, is a very dangerous chemical raw material, many production cycles use acid solutions. In particular, essence is widely used in many industries.
Acetic essence isaqueous solution of acid, with its share of about 70 - 80%. Used for the manufacture of culinary vinegar of various concentrations (3, 6 or 9%). It can be used in other industries as an effective solvent. And also demanded means by production of insecticides for a plant growing complex.
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