About the guards of the Moscow sky
The 202nd separate anti-aircraft missile brigade is a powerful combat unit in the composition of the forces of the air defense of the Ground Forces of the Western Military District. In service with the brigade are missile systems S-300V. Anti-aircraft missile system (ZRS) S-300V has established itself as an effective and reliable. The system is capable, quickly deployed, to hit multiple high-speed air targets at a range of up to 100 km and at altitudes up to 30 km, reliably covering any object from an enemy air attack.
On February 2 of this year, we managed to visit the brigade and spend several hours in the cold and wind, watching the actions of the rocket warriors who had begun the next stage of combat training.
Combat path parts
In 1948, on the basis of the directive of the General Staff of the USSR Armed Forces, the 472nd anti-aircraft artillery regiment began to form in the Belarusian city of Grodno. By the order of the USSR Ministry of Defense dated 03.11.1949, No. 00211, the holiday of a part is defined - March 29. On May 27, 1950, the regiment was handed the Combat Banner of the unit.In 1958, the anti-aircraft artillery regiment was re-equipped with new military equipment and in the summer of the same year was redeployed to the city of Baranavichy (Belarus), where he repeatedly participated in large-scale exercises of the Belarusian Military District, which resulted in a high appreciation of the USSR Minister of Defense Marshal G.K. Zhukov.
In February-March 1963, on the basis of the directive of the Commander-in-Chief of the Land Forces, the regiment was re-armed to the S-75M Volkhov anti-aircraft missile system and redeployed to the city of Magdeburg (GDR), where it was constantly on duty to guard the air borders of the German Democratic Republic. In 1973, for the differences in combat training, the regiment was awarded the rolling Red Banner of the Military Council of the GSVG.
On August 1, 1974, the regiment was reorganized into the 202nd anti-aircraft missile brigade and reequipped into the Krug complex. After the retraining of personnel at the training center in Orenburg, in August-December 1989, the brigade was re-equipped with an S-300V anti-aircraft missile system and successfully carried out docking tests in the first half of 1990.
In May 1991, on the basis of the directive of the USSR Ministry of Defense and in accordance with the plan for the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Germany,The 202nd anti-aircraft missile brigade was transferred to a new permanent location in the city of Naro-Fominsk, Moscow Region (on the territory of the 4th Kantemirovskaya Brigade) and became part of the air defense forces of the Moscow Military District, where it remains today.
During the period of the collapse of the Soviet Union, the formation continued to conduct classes on a combat training plan, albeit with enormous organizational problems. In February 1992, for example, to carry out training shots, two echelons with equipment and personnel went to the training ground, and when the third one was loaded, the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan declared its sovereignty and refused to conduct shooting. For two months, the personnel were in the field camp in complete uncertainty. Thanks to the persistence of the brigade commander, Colonel A.G. Repik and commander of the air defense forces of the Moscow Military District, Lieutenant-General V.K. Avdeeva question about the conduct of shooting was resolved. The brigade shot out on the "excellent".
The anti-aircraft missile brigade has repeatedly been recognized as one of the best air defense units of the Moscow Military District and the Ground Forces. According to the results of combat training in the 2008 school year, the unit was recognized as one of the best in the Moscow Military District.In accordance with the directive of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation of 03.02.2009, the number 344/4/0171, from May 10, 2010, the brigade is part of the permanent readiness and since June 1, 2010, it is in combat duty on the air defense of the Moscow Region.
In accordance with the plans, the 202nd brigade should be further reequipped with S-400 complexes. In 2011, a brigade under the command of Colonel Valeria Zayko took part in the Center-2011 strategic exercise at the Kapustin Yar testing range (Volgograd region). In the course of the exercise, all assigned air targets are amazed to be excellent.
Before the next shift takes over for combat duty, the national flag is lifted.
The 9S15M Obzor'-3 circular review radar is the main source of information about the S-300V airborne systems. Able to detect ballistic and aerodynamic targets, determine their type and nationality. In the view mode of responsibility (45 degrees in elevation, tempo 12 s), the instrumental detection range is 330 km, the detection range of the fighter is up to 240 km, in the overview mode (20 degrees in elevation, tempo 6 s) - at a distance of 150 km .
To increase the likelihood of detecting ballistic missiles in the missile defense sector (120 degrees), the antenna rotation in azimuth slows down, and the viewing sector in elevation and the rate of information update increase to 55 degrees and 9 s, respectively. At the same time, fighter aircraft are reliably detected within the entire instrumental range, and ballistic missiles of the Lance and Scud types - at a distance of at least 95 and 115 km, respectively.
The high noise immunity from active and passive radio-electronic interference allows the Obzor-3 radar to automatically take out at a gearbox, up to 200 marks from targets in a single review period, as well as the angular coordinates (bearing) of directors of noise barriers. To increase the radar potential in certain areas and increase its protection against interference, four programs for slowing down the station antenna rotation are provided (the deceleration sector is 30 degrees in azimuth at 6 with the rate of information update), as well as a number of other technical solutions. The mass of the Obzor-3 radar on a high-tracked crawler chassis (“object 832”) with the calculation of 4 people is 46 tons.
Radar 1L13-3-1 "Sky-SV".It is intended for detecting and tracking air targets, including those manufactured using stealth technology, at long range, determining nationality and issuing target coordinates (range and azimuth) to indicators and devices mating with radar. Antennas, equipment and autonomous power supply are placed on three high-traffic vehicles and two trailers, which allows you to deploy radar in hard-to-reach places. Possible power supply from the industrial network. The radar has two remote workplaces for operators to remotely (at a distance of up to 500 m) control over the air situation, control radar systems, receive and transmit data. The detection range of an airborne fighter-type target, depending on the height, km: 500 m - at least 60, 10000 m - at least 250, 27000 m - at least 350.
Along with the training of the combat training plan, the officers on duty at the shift of the brigade are in constant readiness at the command post and around the clock monitor the state of the air lines in the designated area of responsibility.
The “local” cover of the S-300V air defense missile system in an approximately fifteen-kilometer “dead zone” is carried out by the 9K331 Tor-M1 air defense systems.This air defense system is designed for air defense against attacks of high-precision weapons, guided and anti-radar missiles, guided bombs, airplanes, helicopters, cruise missiles and remotely-piloted aircraft (RPV). The "TOR-M1" includes a combat vehicle (9A331), a transport-loading vehicle (9T244), and maintenance and repair facilities.
The combat vehicle houses information command tools, command and control devices, navigation and communications, two transport-launch containers with four anti-aircraft guided missiles each, an autonomous power supply system. Information and command means provide target detection, measurement of their coordinates and missile guidance. A radar with a circular survey locator functions in conjunction with a computer, detects and identifies up to forty-eight targets at a distance of up to 25 km, and then accompanies the ten most dangerous of them. These goals by the criterion of danger are distributed in a priority series. Target data are sent to the commander’s console and in parallel to the tracking and guidance station of the missiles.
The Tor-M1 anti-aircraft missile system is capable of solving a combat task autonomously or as part of an automated control system for an air defense division. Coordination of its work as part of the system takes place with the help of the battery command center "Ranzhyr" or "Tangent", the information is exchanged through the channels of the telecode radio communication. The equipment of the system of the complex is made with the use of the latest technical achievements, it has a developed functional control, which ensures high operational reliability. The calculation of self-propelled anti-aircraft installation consists of a commander, operator and driver. Crew protection from weapons of mass destruction. To create normal habitability conditions inside the working compartment of the tower, special equipment is used.
The S-300V air defense missile system is intended for the defense of groups of troops and the most important front and rear objects from massive strikes of operational-tactical ballistic missiles, airballistic and cruise missiles, strategic and tactical aircraft, and other aerodynamic means of air attack.Structurally, the ZRS contains: a node for detection and target designation, anti-aircraft missile systems, technical means.
Radar sector review 9S19M2 "Ginger". It is intended for detection, identification and tracking of all types of air targets, as well as issuing information about them to the command center. The radar has a high noise immunity due to the analysis of electronic noise, the choice of the necessary method of signal processing, tuning the carrier frequency in the presence of response noise. Depending on the situation, Ginger can operate in several modes and in a difficult air situation with a high probability of detecting ballistic and aeroballistic missiles, headpieces of the Pershing type BR, jammers and other targets. The mass of the station on the track base (“object 832”) with the calculation of 4 people is 44 tons.
For the first time, the S-300V system was widely presented at the Mosaeroshow-92 exhibition in Zhukovsky, near Moscow. The S-300B complex in the west received the name SA-12 A “Gladiator” (with “type II” missiles - 9M83) and SA-12B “Giant” (with “type I” missiles - 9M82). On the eve of US President Bill Clinton’s visit to Moscow in April 1995, an unprecedented decision was made in the Russian capital to sell the S-300B complex to the United States. Machine-Building Plant them. M.I.Kalinina in 1995 fulfilled the contract of Rosvooruzhenie Group of Companies on the delivery to the USA of launchers and missiles of the S-300V system.
The S-300V (9K81) system, which was put into service in 1984, includes: command post 9C457-1, 9C15MT circular radar, 9C19M2 sector radar, four firing batteries. The composition of each battery includes the following means: 9C32-1 missile guidance station (located within a radius of up to 10 km from the command point of the system), up to 6 launchers 9A82 and 9A83-1; up to 6 starting and charging installations 9A84 and 9A85. Complete ammunition of S-300V missiles located on launchers and launch-charging installations - from 96 to 192 of 9M82 and 9M82 missiles, depending on the configuration of firing batteries with launchers and missiles of various variants. All means of air defense systems can operate on combat-unmarked combat positions, function stably in various climatic conditions, and be transported by any mode of transport, including air transport.
The system was created specifically for operations in areas of intensive front-line aviation, which, along with the breadth of its tasks and the need to continuously provide all-round defense for part-of-battle losses, required the use of an expanded composition of radar detection and guidance stations.The unique properties of the complex allow to protect an area of 500 square meters. km from the simultaneous strike of four tactical ballistic missiles (BR) of the “Lance” type, or two Pershing-1A type missiles with an area of up to 240 square meters. km, or from one rocket type "Pershing-1B" area up to 310 square meters. km, or from one “Scud” type rocket, up to 1,400 square meters. km (calculations were made taking into account the type of warhead BR), to combat air targets that have an effective dispersion surface of more than 0.02 square meters.
All the main combat equipment of the S-300V mobile anti-aircraft missile system for off-road and rough terrain, together with covered military equipment, are mounted on a GM-830 unified tracked chassis of high maneuverability and cross-country capability, having autonomous power supply and radio communications. A tracked chassis for the S-300V complex was created in KB-3 of the Leningrad Kirov Plant. Eight tracked chassis were developed for various devices and assemblies of the system. It was based on a well-developed undercarriage of one of the self-propelled artillery mounts, in which the chassis components and assemblies of the T-72 and T-80 tanks and the multi-fuel diesel engines B-46 or B-84 were used.
Anti-aircraft guided missiles are shipped from the factory in transport-launch containers and do not require preliminary preparation before combat use, with the exception of a 15-second prelaunch preparation cycle (entering the flight task into the autopilot and pre-launch testing of the on-board equipment). The 9M82 missile is designed to destroy operational-tactical ballistic missiles at ranges of up to 40 km, airballistic missiles, and aerodynamic targets, including directors of active jammers at ranges of up to 100 km. The 9M83 missile is designed to hit aerodynamic targets, including maneuvering with an overload of up to 7-8g, ballistic, aeroballistic and cruise missiles.
The 9A82 self-propelled launcher provides training for one or two 9M82 missiles placed directly on the launcher or at the 9A84 launch-charging unit connected to it (with similar missiles), launches the missiles, transmits information to the radio correction, highlights the target. The self-propelled unit is equipped with a target illumination radar, carrying out the illumination of the target being fired only in the front of the hemisphere launcher.
On the officer's legs are warm winter boots fresh to the army.Scientifically, they are called "boots combined with high berets for low temperatures." Dimension: 39 - 46, height of berets: 23 cm, black color, top material - natural leather of increased thickness 2.4-2.6 mm, lining: combined, warmed Duratherm®, membrane: Gore-tex®, water tightness - 360 minutes . Main insole: two-layer of polyethylene and foamed latex, orthopedic insock, dubbed with aluminum foil. Scope: provision of special units. Retail price - 6500 rubles.
Cross-examination of several officers revealed the following: shoes are warm and comfortable. From "minuses": heavy, do not bend.
Three-coordinate MCNR 9C32 is a mobile multi-channel radar of the centimeter range of waves with high energy potential, electronically controlled beam of the radiation pattern in two planes and digital signal processing. The station is designed for autonomous or target designation with a KP ZRS search, detection, capture and auto-tracking of targets, generating and transmitting their coordinates to the PU for targeting their target illumination and missile defense stations, fire control systems of the air defense system centrally (from the KP system) and autonomous.
The MCNR is able to simultaneously conduct a sectoral overview of the space and accompany up to 12 targets, control the operation of all PU and ROM of the air defense system, transmit information to them for launch and guidance of 12 missiles on 6 targets. In addition, the radar can conduct sensing surface edge for the timely detection of low-flying targets.
In the first mode, according to target designation with KP ZRS at altitudes of 5 km and more, it provides target detection in the sector of 5 degrees in azimuth and 6 degrees in elevation at distances: fighters (helicopters) - 150-200 (up to 120) km, BR type "Lance" / "Scud" - 69/90 km, the head part of the "Pershing" BR - 140 km, SRAM missiles - 80 km. In the autonomous mode, the Ministry of National Defense of Ukraine is searching for targets in the sector of ± 30 degrees in azimuth, 0-18 degrees in elevation and provides detection of ballistic and aerodynamic targets at a distance of 200 km and 140 km, respectively. At the same time, it can control the operation of all PUs of the complex, transmit information to them and ensure simultaneous firing at up to 6 aerodynamic targets. The mass of the station with the calculation of 4-6 people is not more than 44 tons, the base is a unified tracked self-propelled off-road vehicle (“object 833”).
Launcher9A82in a combat position. The deployment time of the complex from a march in any terrain is 5 minutes, the clotting time is 5 minutes. The transfer time of the system from standby to combat does not exceed 40 seconds. The total service life of military equipment is 20 years. The complex can be transported by rail, air, water transport without restrictions on speed and distance. For transportation of combat vehicles of the S-300V system on the roads, transport trucks — semi-trailers — heavy vehicles, towed by MAZ-537 tractors, are used. For the delivery of missiles from arsenals and storage bases, transport trucks are used - KRAZ-type truck tractors and heavy-duty semi-trailers.
On February 1, 2012, after the completion of a single training of servicemen, in the Ground Forces, planned classes began as part of sections, crews and calculations. In the course of the training, the servicemen of the 202nd armored ground base station are working on standards for deploying and loading the S-300V anti-aircraft missile system. Loading has begun. Specially appointed fighters ensure that the KWP with the rocket does not swing, adjusting the tension of the lines.
S-300V is one of the models of collective weapons, the success of which is most dependent on the coherence of actions of each member of the combat crew.The classes in the calculations are carried out in compliance with all necessary preventive measures aimed at preventing colds of the military due to the onset of severe frosts. Near the places where the classes are held, there are deployed heating stations for the personnel, where intermediate food is provided for servicemen with obligatory hot tea. Additional foods, such as lard, have been introduced into the basic ration of the personnel.
The book of S.M. Ganina and A.V. Karpenko"C-300 ZENIT ROCKET SYSTEM". PDF-book is easily searched on the Internet.