10 facts about muscles
We recommend this compilation for reading to all those involved in fitness, especially power loads. The pledge of health is knowledge! And without knowledge of how our muscles are arranged and work, they are unlikely to be able to properly pump.
1. How many muscles are there?
In total, the human body has from 640 to 850 muscles. During simple walking, the body uses up to 200 muscles. Muscle tissue is 15% tighter and heavier than fat, so a trained person can outnumber a full but unsportsmanlike person of the same height. Muscles account for an average of 40% of body weight.
2. The very muscle
The most enduring muscle of a person is the heart, the shortest one is stirrup (it strains the eardrum in the ear). Its length is 1.27 millimeters.
The longest muscle of the human body is tailor. The fastest muscle is blinking.
There are various opinions regarding which muscle is the strongest in the body. It is often said that the most powerful muscle is the tongue, but the tongue consists of several muscles, therefore this point of view is false. The chewing muscles are very strong (the strength of their pressure can reach 100 kilograms), as well as calves and gluteal muscles.
3. Such different muscles
Human muscles are not the same. Therefore, they need to train in different ways, and the time to recover and different muscle groups is different. Triceps recover most quickly, the back muscles most slowly. This must be taken into account during training, the muscles need rest no less than the load, since the growth of muscle fibers is due to the effect of supercompensation. Full muscle recovery occurs only after 48 hours after intense exertion.
4. Muscle endurance
Endurance - the ability of the muscle to maintain performance over time. The most enduring muscle of the human body, as we have said, is the heart. According to the doctors, the “safety margin” of an average heart is at least 100 years.
Muscles start to get tired when glycogen ends up in them, fatigue is also explained by a large amount of calcium in the muscles. Previously, it was believed that the main culprit of fatigue is lactic acid.
A study was conducted at Columbia University in which mice swam for three weeks daily and cyclists trained for three days. It turned outthat after physical exercises, there was a serious change in the chemical structure of the ryanodine receptor, which is responsible for muscle contraction, a gap appeared in the cell membrane through which calcium leaked into muscle cells.
5. Muscles and emotions
It is known that the movement of the facial muscles is directly related to human emotions. At the beginning of the last century, Russian scientist Ivan Sikorsky compiled a classification of facial expressions: the muscles around the eyes are responsible for expressing mental phenomena, the muscles around the mouth are for expressing acts of will, and all facial muscles express feelings.
In 2011, scientists were able to discover that facial expression occurs long before its birth. Even during the prenatal period, the child is already able to move the facial muscles, smile, raise eyebrows or frown. The facial muscles make up 25% of the total number of muscles, while 17 muscles are involved in a smile, while anger or crying is 43. One of the best ways to maintain smooth skin on the face is kissing. When they work from 29 to 34 muscle groups.
6. Muscles and genes
Amazingly, muscle training affects not only the person himself, but also his genes.They are modified, which further help the muscle fibers to be ready for new loads.
In order to prove this or disprove the scientists from the University of Aarhus gathered a focus group of 20 volunteers and spent with them a 20-minute aerobic load on the exercise bike. After the test, a quadriceps biopsy was taken from the subjects to see how the genes changed in their cells.
It turned out that physical activity activates the genes related to the muscles. This is due to the fact that cells preserve DNA with the help of methyl groups. If you remove them, the gene information is converted into enzymes and proteins, which are necessary for burning calories, gaining muscle mass and oxygen consumption. After the experiment, all the participants in the study reduced the number of methyl groups - that is, the muscles adapted to increase metabolism.
7. Muscles and telepathy
A simple person is not able to establish control over all the muscles of the body, so irresponsible muscle contractions can serve as an indicator of hidden thoughts or conceived actions for knowledgeable people.High-level psychologists and telepaths can benefit from knowledge of these processes.
Wolf Messing, one of the most famous telepaths, explained his phenomenal abilities not with magic, but with a thorough knowledge of the workings of human muscles. He said: “This is not a reading of thoughts, but, if I may say so,“ reading muscles ”... When a person is intensely thinking about something, brain cells transmit impulses to all the muscles of the body.”
8. Long Palmar Muscle
Only one out of six people on the ground have long palmar muscles on both hands. Some have only one of their hands. These muscle fibers are responsible for releasing claws in animals. Man, of course, this function is not needed. The long palmar muscles, therefore, are a rudiment used by surgeons, if necessary, as a material for muscle transplantation.
9. Muscles and chocolate
Oddly enough, one of the most useful products for the heart and muscles in general is bitter chocolate. Studies at Wayne University in Detroit have revealed the effect of the epicatechin substance found in bitter chocolate on the growth of mitochondria in muscle cells.Scientists at the University of Aquila also conducted a study in which they gave subjects a hundred grams of chocolate for 15 days and measured their blood pressure. During the experiment, people normalized blood pressure, improved blood circulation. Accordingly, moderate consumption of dark chocolate can be considered as the prevention of heart disease and atherosclerosis.
10. Muscle loss
Muscles are not forever. After 40 years, they begin to actively “burn”, a person begins to lose from 2 to 3 percent of muscle tissue in a year, after 60 years - up to 5%. Therefore, training in adulthood is no less important than in youth.